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Comparison of the acetylation of procainamide and sulfadimidine in man

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The acetylation of procainamide and sulfadimidine has been measured simultaneously in plasma and urine in 20 healthy human volunteers by a specific G.L.C. method, after single and multiple oral doses of procainamide retard tablets. A distinct bimodality (9 rapid and 11 slow acetylators) was apparent from the concentrations of procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide both in urine and plasma, which was in complete agreement with data about sulfadimidine acetylation. The influence of acetylator phenotype on the relative concentrations of procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide in plasma as compared to their appearance with time in urine was further studied in 5 additional healthy subjects after a single oral dose of procainamide. The present results show that acetylator phenotype can now be determined using procainamide as the test substance, and for this purpose multiple doses offer hardly any advantage over a single dose of the drug. However, because the separation between rapid and slow acetylators is less pronounced for procainamide than for sulfadimidine, precise criteria must be established for the conditions of the test, and the influence of diseases, such as renal insufficiency, should be taken into consideration.

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Frislid, K., Berg, M., Hansteen, V. et al. Comparison of the acetylation of procainamide and sulfadimidine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 9, 433–438 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00606561

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Key words

  • Procainamide
  • N-acetylprocainamide
  • sulfadimidine
  • acetylated sulfadimidine
  • plasma and urinary concentration ratios
  • acetylator phenotype