Production, release and effectiveness of two female sex pheromone components ofPeriplaneta americana
The attractant substances periplanone-A and B were isolated from extracts obtained from virgin female cockroaches by liquid chromatography. The effectiveness of these two pheromone components was tested by means of the male electroantennogram (EAG).
The gut of the female cockroach, which is considered to be the site of attractant production, contains both of these components. They are equally effective in eliciting the EAG; the effectiveness of extracts made on the first day after the imaginal molt corresponds to that of 0.1 ng (±)-periplanone-B in each case. During the first 20 days of imaginai life the effectiveness of both components rises by a factor of 100.
The components released into the air were adsorbed on Tenax for testing. The amount of each pheromone component collected per female per day, between the 10th and the 25th day of imaginal life, is as effective as ca. 0.6 ng (±)-periplanone-B.
Electrophysiological methods were used to study the response evoked in single receptor cells of the males by the attractant. Two specialized receptor types, one of which responds to periplanone-A and the other to periplanone-B are found in the same sensillum. Examination of these sensilla in the scanning electron microscope after electrophysiological recording showed that they were always sensilla of the type swB.
The total number of attractant receptors calculated on the basis of this finding is between 30,000 and 40,000 of each cell type per antenna.
These results suggest the presence of a two-component attractant system in the American cockroach.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Adams MA, Nakanishi K, Still WC, Arnold EV, Clardy J, Persoons CJ (1979) Sex pheromone of the American cockroach: Absolute configuration of periplanone-B. Am Chem Soc 101:2496–2498Google Scholar
- Altner H, Sass H, Altner I (1977) Relationship between structure and function of antennal chemo-, hygro-, and thermoreceptive sensilla inPeriplaneta americana. Cell Tissue Res 176:389–405Google Scholar
- Bell WJ (1982) Pheromones and behavior. In: Bell WJ, Adiyodi KG (eds) The American cockroach. Chapman and Hall, London New York, pp 371–397Google Scholar
- Burrows M, Boeckh J, Esslen J (1982) Physiological and morphological properties of interneurones in the deutocerebrum of male cockroaches which respond to female pheromone. J Comp Physiol 145:447–457Google Scholar
- Charlton RE, Cardé RT (1982) Rate and diel periodicity of pheromone emission from female gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) determined with a glass-adsorption collection system. J Insect Physiol 28:423–430Google Scholar
- Kitamura C, Takahashi S (1976) Isolation procedure of the sex pheromone of the American cockroach,Periplaneta americana L. Appl Entomol Zool 11:373–375Google Scholar
- Nishino C, Kimura R (1982) Olfactory receptor responses of the nymphal American cockroach to sex pheromones and their mimics. Comp Biochem Physiol 72A:237–242Google Scholar
- Nishino C, Manabe S, Kuwabara K, Kimura R, Takayanagi H (1983) Isolation of sex pheromones of the American cockroach by monitoring with electroantennogram responses. Insect Biochem 13:65–70Google Scholar
- Persoons CJ (1977) Structure elucidation of some insect pheromones: A contribution to the development of selective pest control agents. Thesis, Agricultural University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
- Persoons CJ, Ritter FJ, Lichtendonk WJ (1974) Sex pheromones of the American cockroachPeriplaneta americana. Isolation and partial identification of two excitants. Proc K Ned Akad Wet Amsterdam 77:201–204Google Scholar
- Persoons CJ, Verwiel PEJ, Ritter FJ, Nooyen WJ (1982) Studies on sex pheromone of American cockroach, with emphasis on structure elucidation of periplanone-A. J Chem Ecol 8:439–451Google Scholar
- Roth LM, Willis ER (1952) A study of cockroach behaviour. Am Midl Nat 47:66–129Google Scholar
- Rust MK (1976) Quantitative analysis of male responses released by female sex pheromone inPeriplaneta americana. Anim Behav 24:681–685Google Scholar
- Sass H (1976) Zur nervösen Codierung von Geruchsreizen beiPeriplaneta americana. J Comp Physiol 107:49–65Google Scholar
- Schafer R (1977) The nature and development of sex attractant specificity in cockroaches of the genusPeriplaneta. IV. Electrophysiological study of attractant specificity and its determination by juvenile hormone. J Exp Zool 199:189–208Google Scholar
- Schaller D (1978) Antennal sensory system ofPeriplaneta americana L. Cell Tissue Res 191:121–139Google Scholar
- Seelinger G, Sass H (1982) Sex-specific activity patterns and pheromone release inPeriplaneta americana. 5th ECRO Congress, University of Regensburg, FRG, 6.-9.9.1982Google Scholar
- Still WC (1979) (±)-Periplanone-B. Total synthesis and structure of the sex excitant pheromone of the American cockroach. J Am Chem Soc 101:2493–2495Google Scholar
- Talman E, Verwiel PEJ, Ritter FJ, Persoons CJ (1978) Sex pheromones of the American cockroachPeriplaneta americana. Israel J Chem 17:227–235Google Scholar
- Wharton ML, Wharton DRA (1957) The production of sex attractant substance and of oöthecae by the normal and irradiated American cockroach,Periplaneta americana L. J Insect Physiol 1:229–239Google Scholar