Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 154, Issue 2, pp 279–286 | Cite as

Visual cells and visual pigments of the lamprey,Lampetra fluviatilis

  • V. I. Govardovskii
  • D. V. Lychakov
Article

Summary

The long and short photoreceptors in the lamprey retina possess similar cone-like outer segments where many disks are infoldings of the outer plasmic membrane. Following the treatment by the Hartwig's (1967) method, outer segments of the long receptors are stained red, and those of the short receptor are stained blue, like the cones and rods in higher vertebrates, resp. (Fig. 1). Microspectrophotometry has shown that the short cells contain P5171 whereas the long receptors possess P5551 (Fig. 3). Spectral sensitivity of the dark-adapted retina measured by electroretinographic b-wave and aspartate-isolated receptor potential, corresponds to P517 (Figs. 5, 8). Judging from the receptor potential, the short receptors do not saturate at high illuminances and contribute to the retinal function in photopic conditions as well (Fig. 7). Photopic ERG is of a typical cone-dominant shape (Fig. 4).

It is concluded that the long photoreceptors of the lamprey retina are cones whereas the short cells should be regarded as a peculiar kind of rods which possess cone ultrastructure and can operate in scotopic as well as in photopic conditions.

Abbreviation

LRP

late receptor potential

References

  1. Baylor DA, Fuortes MGF (1970) Electrical responses of single cones in the retina of the turtle. J Physiol 207:77–92Google Scholar
  2. Bongard MM (1955) Colorimetry on animals. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 103:239–242 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Crescitelli F (1972) The visual cells and visual pigments of the vertebrate eye. In: Dartnall HJA (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VII/1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 247–363Google Scholar
  4. Dickson DH, Graves DA (1979) Fine structure of the lamprey photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. Anat Rec 193:522–523Google Scholar
  5. Donner KO, Rushton WAH (1959) Retinal stimulation by light substitution. J Physiol 149:288–302Google Scholar
  6. Eakin RM (1965) Differentiation of rods and cones in total darkness. J Cell Biol 25:162–165Google Scholar
  7. Eakin RM, Brandenburger JL (1970) Osmic staining of amphibian and gastropod photoreceptors. J Ultrastruct Res 30:619–641Google Scholar
  8. Ebrey TG, Honig B (1977) New wavelength dependent visual pigment nomograms. Vision Res 17:147–151Google Scholar
  9. Evans EM (1966) On the ultrastructure of the synaptic region of visual receptors in certain vertrebrates. Z Zellforsch 71:499–516Google Scholar
  10. Fujimoto M, Tomita T (1979) Reconstitution of the slow PIII from the rod potential. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci 18:1090–1093Google Scholar
  11. Govardovskii VI (1967) Electron microscopic investigation of the structure and development of vertebrate photoreceptors. Thesis, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Govardovskii VI (1975) On the sites of generation of the early and late receptor potentials in rods. Vision Res 15:971–981Google Scholar
  13. Govardovskii VI (1977) On the role of Ca++ in excitation of vertebrate photoreceptors. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 235:1445–1448 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Govardovskii VI, Zueva LV (1974) Spectral sensitivity of the frog eye in the ultraviolet and visible region. Vision Res 14:1317–1321Google Scholar
  15. Hartwig H-G (1967) Eine neue Methode zur färberischen Differenzierung von Stäbchen und Zapfen. Z Wiss Mikroskopie 68:235–240Google Scholar
  16. Holmberg K, Öhman P, Dreyfert T (1977) ERG-recordings from the retina of the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis). Vision Res 17:715–717Google Scholar
  17. Laties AM, Liebman PA (1970) Cones of living amphibian eye: selective staining. Science 168:1475–1477Google Scholar
  18. Liebman PA (1975) Birefringence, dichroism and rod outer segment structure. In: Snyder AW, Menzel R (eds) Photoreceptor optics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 199–214Google Scholar
  19. Lychakov DV (1976) Light- and electron microscopic study of photoreceptors in lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis). J Evol Biochem Physiol 12:358–361 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. Öhman P (1971) The photoreceptor outer segments of the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis). An electron-, fluorescence- and light microscopic study. Vision Res 11:287–297Google Scholar
  21. Öhman P (1976) Fine structure of photoreceptors and associated neurons in the retina ofLampetra fluviatilis (Cyclostomi). Vision Res 16:659–662Google Scholar
  22. Romeis B (1948) Mikroskopische Technik, Leibnitz, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  23. Sillman AJ, Ito H, Tomita T (1969) Studies on the mass receptor potential of the isolated frog retina. I. General properties of the response. Vision Res 9:1435–1442Google Scholar
  24. Stell WK (1967) The structure and relationships of horizontal cells and photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic complexes in goldfish retina. Am J Anat 121:401–424Google Scholar
  25. Tretjakoff DK (1916) Sense organs of the river lamprey. Transactions of Novoross Univ, Phys Mat Fac, 8:OdessaGoogle Scholar
  26. Wald G (1957) The metamorphosis of visual systems in the sea lamprey. J Gen Physiol 40:901–914Google Scholar
  27. Walls GL (1942) The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Cranbrook, Bloomfield HillsGoogle Scholar
  28. Witkowsky P, Dowling JE (1969) Synaptic relationships in the plexiform layers of carp retina. Z Zellforsch 100:60–82Google Scholar
  29. Young RW, Droz B (1968) The renewal of protein in retinal rods and cones. J Cell Biol 39:169–194Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. I. Govardovskii
    • 1
  • D. V. Lychakov
    • 1
  1. 1.I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and BiochemistryLeningradUSSR

Personalised recommendations