The formation of macrocracks under uniaxial tension occurs by the enlargement of a crack that has emerged from a certain epicenter, and by its linking with enlarging cracks that are encountered in the course of its propagation; in this case the contribution of each of these mechanisms depends on the properties of the material. Two primary cases are macrocrack formation by the linking of a large number of virtually unenlarged microdefects — the so-called “center mechanism”  — and the enlargement of a crack that has formed from a certain epicenter [6, 7, 9], Realization of the first mechanism is possible in materials possessing a high initial defectiveness, or an initial defectiveness and a low yield point. Modeling by the second mechanism is more fitting for flawless brittle materials.
The dependence of prerupture defect concentration on the volume of the specimen being tested, the applied stress, and the temperature is confirmed . The relationship, which is more explicit for brittle flawless materials, diminishes with the appearance of initial defectiveness and plasticity, although prerupture concentration is higher for the latter.
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Krasnikov, A.M. Allowance for the linking of microcracks in a statistical kinetic failure model of a material under uniaxial tension. Mech Compos Mater 19, 43–50 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00604025
- Yield Point
- Applied Stress
- Uniaxial Tension
- Brittle Material