The turning reaction of jumping spidersHasarius andPlexippus to single moving black targets was investigated. The targets were presented to spiders through windows placed in the visual field of the posterolateral (PL) eye. Spiders executed a turn when a moving oblong target 1° in height came into and covered a single window 0.5° in width and 5° in height, and when it left the window, showing that both off- and onstimulation of a few receptors were sufficient for the reaction. The probability of a turn being made for stimuli from a pair of windows (0.5°×5° each, 1° spacing) and for stimuli from a single window of 5°×5° was greater than for stimuli from a single window of 0.5°×5°.
Spiders reacted to the turning on and off of a single stationary spot of light placed in the visual field of the posterolateral (PL) eyes with an accurate turn of the prosoma. A single off-stimulation of up to 7° in spot size and a single on-stimulation of up to 3° were sufficient for the reaction. The rate of reaction to single light stimuli decreased with increasing size of the spot, with decreasing intensity of light, with decreasing rate of change in intensity, and with decreasing duration of shadow or light.
The rate of reaction to two sequential offstimuli from two spots (1° aperture each, center-tocenter distance 1°) was markedly greater than that to single off-stimuli from one spot. The rate of reaction to simultaneous off-stimuli from two spots was less than that to single off-stimuli from one spot. The inhibitory effect was maximum at a distance of 5°. The rate of reaction to sequential on-stimuli was slightly greater than that to single stimuli. In addition, simultaneous on-stimuli at 3°–7° spacing also enhanced the reaction.
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Komiya, M., Yamashita, S. & Tateda, H. Turning reactions to real and apparent motion stimuli in the posterolateral eyes of jumping spiders. J. Comp. Physiol. 163, 585–592 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00603842
- Visual Field
- Spot Size
- Apparent Motion
- Light Stimulus
- Single Stimulus