The Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) separator brine is toxic to a number of plant species, including papaya and ‘ohi’ a (Metrosideros). A great deal but not all of the brine toxicity on the latter is related to salinityper se. In contrast, papaya growth was stimulated by NaCI brines 3500 ppm and even higher, but inhibited by HGP brine of comparable salt content. Combinations of borate, fluoride, trace metals and salts may generate phytotoxicity. Disposal of HGP brine by direct release into the soil or groundwater is contraindicated.
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Siegel, S.M., Kamaka, P., Siegel, B.Z. et al. The Hawaii geothermal project: Phytotoxicity of geothermal separator brine, An exploratory study. Water Air Soil Pollut 19, 251–257 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00599053
- Plant Species
- Trace Metal