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Evolution de la pression partielle d'oxygène et du pH sanguins chez l'embryon de Poulet au cours de la croissance

Evolution of bloodPO2 and pH in the chicken embryo during growth

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Summary

A vascular micro-catheterism technique allowed the study of blood\(P_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) and pH evolution during chicken embryonic life (from eight days to hatching) and in the chicken one to three days of age.

pHa and\(p{\text{H}}\bar v\) evolve in a diphasic way:

  • — they show a progressive acidification until the 15th day of incubation\(p{\text{H}}\bar v\) = −0.041x + 7.956;x=days of incubation);

  • — from that time they remain at constant values.

\(Pa_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) and\(P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) as well as the difference\(Pa_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } - P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) decrease significantly as a function of ageing in the embryo (\(Pa_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) torr=−3.54x+99.5;\(P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) torr = −2.05x+52.0.

During the post-natal period the pH values become alcaline and the\(P_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) values increase suddenly.

The interpretation of the simultaneous decrease in pH and\(P_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) is discussed and the hypothesis of a progressive asphyxia (hypercapnic acidosis and hypoxia) is advanced. The asphyxic situation could be the consequence of the chorioallantoic involution of the circulation.

Résumé

Une technique de micro-cathétérisation vasculaire a permis d'étudier l'évolution de la\(P_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) et du pH sanguins au cours de la vie embryonnaire du Poulet (de 8 jours à l'éclosion) et chez le poussin de 1 à 3 jours.

Le pHa et le\(P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) évoluent de manière diphasique:

  • — ils montrent une acidification progressive jusqu'à 15 jours d'incubation\(P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) = −0,041x + 7,956;x = nombre de jours d'incubation);

  • — à partir de ce stade ils conservent sensiblement les mêmes valeurs.

Les\(Pa_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) et\(P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) ainsi que la différence\(Pa_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } - P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) décroissent significativement chez l'embryon en fonction de l'âge (\(Pa_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) torr=−3,54x+99,5;\(P\bar v_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) torr = − 2,05x + 52,0).

A la période post-natale, le pH s'alcalinise et les\(P_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) augmentent brutalement.

L'interprétation de la baisse simultanée de pH et de\(P_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } \) est discutée, et l'hypothèse d'une asphyxie (acidose hypercapnique associée à une hypoxie) progressive semble pouvoir être avancée. L'état asphyxique est peut-être déterminé par l'involution de la circulation chorio-allantoïdienne.

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Bibliographie

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Girard, H., Muffat-Joly, M. Evolution de la pression partielle d'oxygène et du pH sanguins chez l'embryon de Poulet au cours de la croissance. Pflugers Arch. 328, 21–35 (1971). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00587358

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Key-Words

  • Oxygen Partial Pressure
  • pH
  • Blood
  • Chicken
  • Embryo

Schlüsselwörter

  • Sauerstoffdruck
  • pH
  • Blut
  • Hühnchen
  • Embryo