Pflügers Archiv

, Volume 392, Issue 3, pp 244–250 | Cite as

Effect of halothane anesthesia on end-tidal\(P_{CO_2 } \) and pattern of respiration in the rat

  • Yasuichiro Fukuda
  • Wolf R. See
  • Yoshiyuki Honda
Heart, Circulation, Respiration and Blood; Environmental and Exercise Physiology


End-tidal\(P_{CO_2 } \)\(\left( {P_{ET_{CO_2 } } } \right)\) and ventilation of the rat anesthetized with halothane were measured. The\(P_{ET_{CO_2 } } \) measured by an infrared analyzer agreed well with the simultaneously measured\(Pa_{CO_2 } \) in the range from 20–60 mm Hg (2.7–8.0 kPa). When the level of anesthesia was deepened by increasing the halothane concentration from 0.9–3.0%, minute ventilation was decreased progressively accompanied by a rise in\(P_{ET_{CO_2 } } \) and the CO2 output was reduced. Halothane induced a progressive decrease in frequency of respiration (f) with almost constant or even slight increase in tidal volume (VT). Decrease inf was caused largely by the prolongation of expiratory duration (TE). Changes in inspiratory duration (TI) were small and the meanVT/TI ratio remained unaltered at different levels of anesthesia. These changes in respiratory pattern induced by halothane anesthesia contrasted with the simultaneous decrease inVT,f andVT/TI ratio and apparent changes of bothTI andTE reported in other species. Species differences in effects of anesthesia on ventilation were discussed. Restraining the rat on a stereotaxic apparatus with head holders, especially with ear bars, elicited an initial transient stimulation of ventilation which was followed by a strong depression.

Key words

Rat End-tidal\(P_{CO_2 } \) Halothane anesthesia Respiratory pattern 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuichiro Fukuda
    • 1
  • Wolf R. See
    • 2
  • Yoshiyuki Honda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology II, School of MedicineChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  2. 2.Institut für PhysiologieRuhr-Universität BochumBochum 1Germany

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