Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Negative polarity and grammatical representation

  • 437 Accesses

  • 158 Citations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Anderson, S.: 1972, ‘How to Get Even’,Language 48, 893–906.

  2. Aoun, J., N. Hornstein, and D. Sportiche: 1980, ‘On Some Aspects of Wide Scope Quantification’,Journal of Linguistic Research 1, 69–96.

  3. Baker, C. L.: 1970a, ‘Double Negatives’,Linguistic Inquiry 1, 169–186.

  4. Baker, C. L.: 1970b, ‘Problems of Polarity in Counterfactuals’, in J. Sadock and A. Vanek (eds.),Studies Presented to Robert B. Lees by his Students, PIL Monograph Series 1, Linguistic Research, Inc, Edmonton.

  5. Barwise, J.: 1978, ‘Monotone Quantifiers and Admissible Sets’, in J. Fenstad, R. Grandy, and G. Sacks (eds.),Generalized Recursion Theory, North-Holland, Amsterdam.

  6. Bolinger, D.: 1960, ‘Linguistic Science and Linguistic Engineering’,Word 16, 364.

  7. Borkin, A.: 1971, ‘Polarity Items in Questions’,Papers from the Seventh Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago.

  8. Carden, G.: 1973,Quantifiers in English: Logical Structure and Linguistic Variation, Taishukan Publishing Co., Tokyo.

  9. Carlson, G.: 1980, Polarity Any is Existential',Linguistic Inquiry 11, 799–804.

  10. Chomsky, N.: 1977, ‘Conditions on Rules of Grammar’, inEssays on Form and Interpretation, North-Holland, New York, pp. 163–210.

  11. Chomsky, N.: 1981, ‘On the Representation of Form and Function’,The Linguistic Review 1, 3–40.

  12. Fauconnier, G.: 1975a, ‘Pragmatic Scales and Logical Structure’,Linguistic Inquiry 6.

  13. Fauconnier, G.: 1975b, ‘Polarity and the Scale Principle’, inPapers from the Eleventh Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago.

  14. Fraser, B.: 1971, ‘An Analysis of Even in English’, in C. Fillmore and D. T. Langendoen (eds.),Studies in Linguistic Semantics, Holt, New York.

  15. Heim, I.: 1983, ‘A Note on Negative Polarity and Downward Entailingness’, paper presented to NELS.

  16. Hintikka, J.: 1977, ‘Quantifiers in Natural Language: Some Logical Problems II’,Linguistics and Philosophy 1, 135–172.

  17. Hintikka, J. 1980, ‘On the Any-Thesis and the Methodology of Linguistics’,Linguistics and Philosophy 4, 101–122.

  18. Hoeksema, J.: 1983, ‘Negative Polarity and the Comparative’,Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1, 403–434.

  19. Horn, L.: 1969, ‘A Presuppositional Analysis of Only and Even’. inPapers from the Fifth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago.

  20. Horn, L.: 1972,On the Semantic Properties of Logical Operators in English, Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA.

  21. Horn, L.: 1978, ‘Remarks on Neg-Raising’, in Cole (ed.),Syntax and Semantics 9;Pragmatics, Academic Press, New York.

  22. Horn, L., and Bayer, S.: 1984, ‘Short-Circuited Implicature: A Negative Contribution’,Linguistics and Philosophy 7, 397–414.

  23. Horn, L.: 1985, ‘Metalinguistic Negation and Pragmatic Ambiguity’,Language 61, 121–174.

  24. Hornstein, N.: 1984,Logic as Grammar: An Approach to Meaning in Natural Language. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

  25. Jackendoff, R.: 1969, ‘An Interpretive Theory of Negation’,Foundations of Language 5, 218–241.

  26. Jackendoff, R.: 1972,Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

  27. Karttunnen, L. and S. Peters: 1979, ‘Conventional Implicature’, in C.-K. Oh and D. D Dinneen (eds.),Syntax and Semantics 11, Academic Press, New York.

  28. Kayne, R.: 1981, ‘Two Notes on the NIC’, in A. Belletti, L. Brandi, and L. Rizzi (eds.),Theory of Markedness in Generative Grammar: Proceedings of the 1979 GLOW Conference, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, pp. 317–341.

  29. Kempson, R.: 1975,Presupposition and the Delimitation of Semantics, Cambridge University Press, England.

  30. Kempson, R.: 1984, ‘More on Any: Reply to Ladusaw’, paper presented toNELS.

  31. Klima, E.: 1964, ‘Negation in English’, in J. Fodor and J. Katz (eds.),The Structure of Language, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

  32. Kroch, A.: 1979,The Semantics of Scope in English, Garland, New York.

  33. Ladusaw, W.: 1979,Polarity Sensitivity as Inherent Scope Relations, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.

  34. Ladusaw, W.: 1980, ‘On the Notion “Affective” in the Analysis of Negative Polarity Items’,Journal of Linguistic Research 1.

  35. Ladusaw, W.: 1983, ‘Logical Form and Conditions on Grammaticality’,Linguistics and Philosophy 6, 373–392.

  36. Lakoff, G.: 1972, ‘Linguistics and Natural Logic’, in D. Davidson, and G. Harman, (eds.),Semantics of Natural Language, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 545–665.

  37. Lakoff, R.: 1969, ‘Some Reasons Why There Can't Be Any Some-Any Rule’,Language 45

  38. Lasnik, H.: 1975, ‘On the Semantics of Negation’, in Hockney et al. (eds.),Contemporary Research in Philosophical Logic and Linguistic Semantics, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.

  39. Linebarger, M.: 1980a,The Grammar of Negative Polarity, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

  40. Linebarger, M.: 1980b, ‘Polarity Any as an Existential Quantifier’, inPapers from the Sixteenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago Linguistic Society, Chicago.

  41. May, R.: 1977,The Grammar of Quantification, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

  42. May, R.: 1980, ‘Logical Form as a Level of Linguistic Representation’, Indiana University Linguistics Club.

  43. May, R.: 1985,Logical Form: Its Structure and Derivation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

  44. McCawley, J.: 1968, ‘The Role of Semantics in Grammar’, in Bach and Harms (eds.),Universals in Linguistic Theory, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 125–170.

  45. Partee, B.: 1982, ‘Belief -Sentences and the Limits of Semantics’, in Peters and Saarinen (eds.),Processes, Beliefs, and Questions, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.

  46. Quine, W.: 1960,Word and Object, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

  47. Rizzi, L.: 1982, ‘Negation, Wh-Movement, and the Null Subject Parameter’, inIssues in Italian Syntax, Foris, Dordrecht, pp. 117–185.

  48. Safir, K.: 1982,Syntactic Chains and the Definiteness Effect, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

  49. Schmerling, S.: 1971, ‘A Note on Negative Polarity’.Papers in Linguistics 4, 200–206.

  50. Sperber, D. and D. Wilson: 1981, ‘Irony and the Use-Mention Distinction’, in P. Cole, (ed.),Syntax and Semantics 9: Pragmatics, Academic Press, New York.

  51. Stalnaker, R. C.: 1974, ‘Pragmatic Presuppositions’, in M. K. Munitz and P. K. Unger (eds.),Semantics and Philosophy, New York University Press, New York.

  52. Williams, E.: 1974,Rule Ordering in Syntax, Ph.D. dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

  53. Wilson, D.: 1975,Presuppositions and Non-Truth-Conditional Semantics, Academic Press, New York.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Linebarger, M.C. Negative polarity and grammatical representation. Linguist Philos 10, 325–387 (1987).

Download citation


  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computational Linguistic
  • Negative Polarity
  • Grammatical Representation