Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

  • Heart, Circulation, Respiration and Blood; Environmental and Exercise Physiology
  • Published:

The CO single breath transfer factor of the lung

Generally acceptable normal values

Abstract

The CO single breath method for determining the transfer factor of the lung,T, and its component factors,Dm andVc, never gained wide application. The lack of generally accepted normal values has contributed to this. In this paper, based on the results of measurements in 28 normal subjects, it is shown that generally acceptable normal values can be obtained by: 1. determiningT at lung volumes above 80% TLC, and 2. expressingT, Dm andVc per unit of alveolar gas volume during breath-holding:T v ,Dm v andVc v .

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adaro F, Meyer M, Sikand RS (1976) Rebreathing and single breath pulmonary CO diffusing capacity in man at rest and exercise studied by C18O isotope. Bull Eur Physiopath Respir 12:747–756

  2. Anderson TW, Shepard RJ (1969) A theoretical study of some errors in the measurement of pulomonary diffusing capacity. Respiration 26:102–115

  3. Apthorp JM, Marshall R (1961) Pulmonary diffusing capacity: a comparison of breath-holding and steady state methods using carbon monoxide. J Clin Invest 40:1775–1784

  4. Bjure J (1969) Relationship between diffusion and central blood volume. In: Arcangeli P, Cotes J, Cournand A, Denolin H, Di Maria G, Sadoul P, Scherrer M, Scarpa G (eds) Normal values for respiratory function in man. Panminerva Medica, Milano, pp 364–368

  5. Burrows B, Kasik JE, Niden AH, Barclay WR (1961) Clinical usefulness of the single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity test. Am Rev Respir Dis 84:789–806

  6. Cadigan JB, Marks A, Ellicot MJ, Jones RH, Gaensler EA (1961) An analysis of factors affecting the measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity by the single breath method. J Clin Invest 40:1495–1514

  7. Cotes JE (1963) Terminology for exchange of gas in the lungs. Lancet 2:843

  8. Cotes JE (1968) Lung function: Assessment and application in medicin. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford

  9. Cotes JE, Hall AM (1969) The transfer factor for the lung; normal values in adults. In: Arcangeli P, Cotes J, Cournand A, Denolin H, Di Maria G, Sadoul P, Scherrer M, Scarpa G (eds) Normal values for respiratory function in man. Panminerva Medica, Milano, pp 327–343

  10. Cuomo AJ, Tisi GM, Moser KM (1973) Relationship of DLco(sb) and Km−1 to lung volume and partition of pulmonary perfusion. J Appl Physiol 35:129–135

  11. Dittmer DS (1961) Blood and other body fluids. Fed Am Soc Exp Biol Washington

  12. Felton C, Rose GL, Cassidy SS, Johnson RL (1981) Comparison of lung diffusing capacity during rebreathing and during slow exhalation. Respir Physiol 43:13–22

  13. Forster RE (1957) Exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood: pulmonary diffusing capacity. Physiol Rev 37:391–452

  14. Forster RE, Fowler WS, Bates DV (1954a) Considerations on the uptake of carbon monoxide by the lungs. J Clin Invest 33:1128–1134

  15. Forster RE, Fowler WS, Bates DV, Van Lingen B (1954b) The absorption of carbon monoxide by the lungs during breath-holding. J Clin Invest 33:1135–1145

  16. Gibson JG, Seligman AM, Peacock WC, Aub JC, Fine J, Evans RD (1964) Distribution of red cells and plasma in large and minute vessels of the normal dog. J Clin Invest 25:848–857

  17. Gurtner GH, Fowler WS (1971) Interrelationships of factors affecting pulmonary diffusing capacity. J Appl Physiol 30:619–624

  18. Hamer NA (1963) Variations in the components of the diffucing capacity as the lung expands. Clin Sci 24:275–285

  19. Hyde RW, Rynes R, Power GG, Nairn J (1967) Determination of distribution of diffusing capacity in relation to blood flow in the human lung. J Clin Invest 46:463–474

  20. Jones RS, Mead F (1961) A theoretical and experimental analysis of anomalies in the estimation of pulmonary diffusing capacity by the single breath method. Quart. J Exp Physiol 46:131–143

  21. Karp RB, Graf PD, Nadel JA (1968) Regulation of pulmonary capillary blood volume by pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures. Circulation 22:1–10

  22. Krogh M (1914) The diffusion of gases through the lungs of man. J Physiol (Lond) 49:271–300

  23. Marks A, Cugell DW, Cadigan JB, Gaensler EA (1957) Clinical determination of the diffusing capacity ofthe lungs. Comparison of methods in normal subjects and patients with “alveolar-capillary block” syndrome. Am J Med 22:51–73

  24. Marshall R (1958) A comparison of methods of measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide. Investigation by fractional analysis of alveolar air. J Clin Invest 37:394–408

  25. McGrath MW, Thomson ML (1959) The effect of age, body size and lung volume change on alveolar-capillary permeability and diffusing capacity in man. J Physiol (Lond) 146:572–582

  26. Ogilvie CM, Forster RE, Blakemore WS, Morton JW (1957) A standardized breath-holding technique for the clinical measurement of the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. J Clin Invest 36:1–17

  27. Permutt F, Caldini P, Maseri A, Palmer WH, Sasamori T, Zierler K (1969) Recruitment versus distensibility in the pulmonary vascular bed. In: Fishman AP, Hecht HH (eds) The pulmonary circulation and interstitial space. Ill. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 375–390

  28. Piiper J, Scheid P (1980) Blood-gas equilibration in lungs. In: West JB, Pulmonary gas exchange. Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp 131–171

  29. Roughton FJ, Forster RE (1957) Relative importance of diffusion and chemical reaction rates in determining the rate of exchange of gases in the human lung, with special reference to true diffusing capacity of pulmonary membrane and volume of blood in the lung capillaries. J Appl Physiol 11:290–302

  30. Shephard RJ (1958) Breath-holding measurement of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Comparison of a field test with steady state and other methods of measurement. J Physiol (Lond) 141:408–419

  31. Sikand RS, Piiper J (1966) Pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO in dogs by the single breath method. Respir Physiol 1:172–192

  32. Visser BF (1964) Analyse dimensionelle des facteurs de distribution. In: Entretiens de physio-pathologie respiratoire, 5e serie, Vigot Frères, Paris, pp 310–312

  33. Wagner PD, Mazzone RW, West JB (1971) Diffusing capacity and anatomic dead space for carbon monoxide (C18O). J Appl Physiol 31:847–852

  34. Werner FM (1979) Determination of the alveolar-capillary blood volume (Vc v ) and the transfer factor of the alveolor-capillary membrane (Dm v ). With special reference to the application in cardio-vascular disease. Thesis, Nijmegen

  35. Wintrobe MM (1961) Clinical Hematology, 5th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, p 104

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to F. Werner.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Werner, F., Beneken Kolmer, H. The CO single breath transfer factor of the lung. Pflugers Arch. 393, 269–274 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00584081

Download citation

Key words

  • Lung function
  • Transfer factor
  • Single breath method
  • Normal values