Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Central hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction in mild hypoxia in man

  • 26 Accesses

  • 21 Citations


Hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction in mild hypoxia was studied in 12 healthy males. Steady state ventilatory responses to hypercapnic-hypoxia\(\left[ {\Delta \dot V_{\left( {\text{s}} \right)} } \right]\) were obtained as the difference in ventilation between hypoxia (mean values ± S.D. of\(P_{{\text{ET}}_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } }\)=7.36±0.20 kPa or of\(P_{{\text{a}}_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } }\) 7.10 ±0.41 kPa) and hyperoxia (\(P_{{\text{ET}}_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} } }\)>26.7 kPa) with the same degree of hypercapnia (\(P_{{\text{ET}}_{{\text{CO}}_{\text{2}} } }\) 6.12±0.22 kPa). On the other band, withdrawal responses\(\left[ {\Delta \dot V_{\left( {\text{w}} \right)} } \right]\) were obtained as the magnitude of depression in ventilation caused by two bicaths of O2 from the above mentioned hypoxic hypercapnia. Averaged\(\Delta \dot V_{\left( {\text{s}} \right)}\) and\(\Delta \dot V_{\left( {\text{w}} \right)}\) were 9.57±5.45 and 6.45 ±4.90l/min, respectively, the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). Furthermore, if we assume the presence of ventilatory depression to be due to tissue\({\text{P}}_{{\text{CO}}_{\text{2}} }\) fall resulting from an increase in cerebral blood flow caused by hypoxia, the magnitude of central hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction was estimated to be as great as the value of\(\Delta \dot V_{\left( {\text{w}} \right)}\).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Black AMS, McCloskey DI, Torrance RW (1971) The response of carotid body chemoreceptors in the cat to sudden change of hypercapnic and hypoxic stimuli. Respir Physiol 13:36–49

  2. Borgström L, Jóhannsson H, Siesjö K (1975) The relationship between arterial\({\text{P}}_{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}} }\) and cerebral blood flow in hypoxic hypoxia. Acta Physiol Scand 93:423–432

  3. Cherniack NS, Edelman NH, Lahiri S (1970) Hypoxia and hypercapnia as respiratory stimulants and depressants. Respir Physiol 11:113–126

  4. Cropp GJA, Comroe JH, Jr (1961) Role of mixed venous blood\({\text{P}}_{{\text{CO}}_{\text{2}} }\) in respiratory control. J Appl Physiol16: 1029–1033

  5. Cunningham DJC (1974) Integrative aspects of the regulation of breathing, a personal view. In: Widdicombe JG (ed) MTP international review of science one, vol 2. Butterworth, London, pp 247–271

  6. Dejours P (1957) Intéret méthodologique de l'étude d'un organisme vivant a la phase initiale de rupture d'un équilibre physiologique. CR Hebd Séanc Sci. Paris 245:335–358

  7. Dejours P (1968) Approaches to the study of arterial chemoreceptors. In: Torrance RW (ed) Arterial chemoreceptors. Blackwell Sci Publ, Oxford, pp 41–49

  8. Dutton RE, Hodson WA, Davies DG, Chernick V (1967) Ventilatory adaptation to a step change in\({\text{P}}_{{\text{CO}}_{\text{2}} }\) at the carotid bodies. J Appl Physiol 23:195–202

  9. Edelman NH, Epstein PE, Lahiri S, Cherniack NS (1973) Ventilatory responses to transient hypoxia and hypercapnia in man. Respir Physiol 17:302–314

  10. Eldridge FL (1974) Central neural respiratory stimulating effect of active respiration. J Appl Physiol 37:723–735

  11. Fitzgerald RS, Parks DC (1971) Effect of hypoxia on carotid chemoreceptor response to carbon dioxide in cats. Respir Physiol 12:218–229

  12. Gabel RA, Kronenberg RS, Severinghaus JW (1973) Vital capacity breaths of 5% or 15% CO2 in N2 or O2 to test carotid chemosensitivity. Respir Physiol 17:195–208

  13. James IM, Millar RA, Purves MJ (1969) Observations on the extrinsic: neural control of cerebral blood flow in the baboon. Circ Res 25 77–93

  14. Kronenberg R, Hamilton FN, Gabel K, Hickey R, Read DJ, Severinghaus JW (1972) Comparison of three methods for quantitating respiratory response to hypoxia in man. Respir Physiol 16:109–125

  15. Lee L, Milhorn HT, Jr (1975) Central ventilatory response to O2 and CO2 at three levels of carotid chemoreceptor stimulation. Respir Physiol 25:317–333

  16. Leitner LM, Dejours P (1968) The speed of response of chemoreceptors. In: Torrance RW (ed) Arterial chemoreceptors. Blackwell Sci Publ, Oxford, pp 79–90

  17. Miller JP, Cunningham DJC, Lloyd BB, Young JM (1974) The transient respiratory effects in man of sudden changes in alveolar CO2 in hypoxia and in high oxygen. Respir Physiol 20:17–31

  18. Nielsen M, Smith H (1951) Studies on the regulation of respiration in acute hypoxia with an appendix on respiratory control during prolonged hypoxia. Acta Physiol Scand 24:293–313

  19. Ou LC, Millar MJ, Tenney SM (1967) Hypoxia and carbon dioxide as separate and interactive depressant of ventilation. Respir Physiol 28:347–358

  20. Perkins JF, Jr (1968) On the contribution of the peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors to pulmonary ventilation — A historical and experimental approach. In: Torrance RW (ed) Arterial chemoreceptors. Blackwell Sci Publ, Oxford, pp 335–355

  21. Plum F, Brown HW (1963) Hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction in subjects with bilateral cerebral dysfunction. J Appl Physiol 1:1139–1145

  22. Pontén U, Siesjö KB (1966) Gradients of CO2 tension in the brain. Acta Physiol Scand 67:129–140

  23. Severinghaus JW, Hamilton FN (1970) End-tidal gas sampler. J. Appl Physiol 28:244

  24. Severinghaus JW, Bainton CR, Carcelen A (1966) Respiratory insensitivity to hypoxia in chronically hypoxic man. Respir Physiol 1:308–334

  25. Swanson GD, Bellville JW (1974) Hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction in human respiratory control. J Appl Physiol 36:480–487

  26. Torrance RW (1968) Prolegomena. In: Torrance RW (ed) Arterial chemoreceptors. Blackwell Sci Publ. Oxford, pp 1–40

  27. Weiskopf RB, Gabel RA (1975) Depression of ventilation during hypoxia in man. J Appl Physiol 39:911–915

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Yoshiyuki Honda.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Honda, Y., Hata, N., Sakakibara, Y. et al. Central hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction in mild hypoxia in man. Pflugers Arch. 391, 289–295 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00581509

Download citation

Key words

  • Hypoxia
  • Hypercapnia
  • Chemoreceptor
  • Hypoxic-hypercapnic interaction