Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 303–309 | Cite as

Surface analysis of paper containing polymer additives by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy I: Application to paper containing dry strength additives

Original Article


The surfaces of handsheets containing polydiallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM) were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The observed N1s chemical shifts were compared with those of the strength additives. Chemical covalences on paper surfaces due to a small amount of polymer additives were clarified and determined by an XPS curve-fitting technique. Some of the problems associated with surface analysis of paper by XPS are discussed. The effects of strength additives on the fiber surface or between fibers are illustrated. This technique appears promising as a tool to analyze paper surfaces treated with small amounts of polymer additives.

Key words

XPS Paper strength additive Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride Anionic polyacrylamide 


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Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Products, Faculty of AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of ChemistryFujian Normal UniversityFujianChina

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