Studies on risk factors for drug non-compliance have not taken into account the possibility of correlated outcomes. We therefore conducted a study into risk factors for non-compliance by using analysis techniques that adjust for these correlations (longitudinal data analysis). Data were obtained from interviews and pharmacy records in a cross-sectional survey in Amsterdam. The subjects were 157 elderly people aged 70 years or older. Of these subjects, 37 were residents of a home for the elderly, 40 were community-dwelling elderly who needed to be visited regularly by a district nurse, and 80 were community-dwelling elderly who did not need to be visited by a distric nurse. Most drugs (78%) were used according to the directions; the remainder (22%) were not used as intended. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for non-compliance for moderate and poor/wrong knowledge of the purpose of a drug as compared with good/correct knowledge were 2.8 (1.2–6.7) and 4.2 (1.5–12), respectively. Drug regimens of two times daily and more than two times daily were associated with odds ratios for non-compliance of 4.5 (1.6–12) and 4.2 (1.7–11), respectively, compared to a regimen of once daily. Compliance increased if a drug was prescribed by a specialist instead of a general practitioner [odds ratio 0.1 (0.04–0.4)]. There was no significant relation between compliance and the number of drugs prescribed to a patient, sex, age, living situation, patient group, or perceived effect. This study, which was based on longitudinal data analysis, demonstrates that in elderly people non-compliance with drug therapy is related to the knowledge of purpose of a drug, the complexity of a drug regimen, and the type of prescriber. The positive association between compliance and the number of drugs prescribed found in former studies was not confirmed.
Drug utilization Elderly Interview, home Data interpretation, statistical Patient non-compliance Records, pharmacy