The moon

, Volume 7, Issue 1–2, pp 202–238 | Cite as

Photoelectrons and solar wind/lunar limb interaction

  • David R. Criswell


It is suggested that boundary conditions for solar wind/lunar limb interactions are active. The ‘whole-Moon’ limb does not evoke a shock cone because warm (≃13 eV/electron) solar wind electrons are replaced by cool (≲2 eV/electron) photoelectrons that are ejected from the generally smooth areas of the lunar terminator illuminated at glazing angles by the Sun. A localized volume of low thermal pressure is created in the solar wind by these cool photoelectrons. The solar wind expands into this turbulence-suppressive volume without shock production. Conversely, directly illuminated highland areas exchange hot photoelectrons (> 20 eV/electron) for warm solar wind electrons. The hot electrons generate a localized pressure increase (Δp) in the adjacent solar wind flow which evokes a shock streamer in the solar wind. Shock streamers are identifiable by a coincident increase in the magnitude (ΔB ∼ Δp) of the solar wind magnetic field immediately external to the lunar wake. Shock occurrence is controlled by lunar topography, solar activity in the hard ultraviolet (> 20 eV), solar wind electron density and thermal velocity, and the intensity of the solar wind magnetic field.


Solar Wind Thermal Pressure Shock Production Smooth Area Highland Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alverez, Roman: 1972, ‘Electrical Conduction Phenomena in Rocks’, Ph. D. dissertation, Engineering Science, Univ. of California at Berkeley.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, K. A., Chase, L. M., Lin, R. P., McCoy, J. E., and McGuire, R. E.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4611–4626.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, A., Cassen, P., Mihalov, J. D., and Eviatar, A.: 1971,Science 172, 716–718.Google Scholar
  4. Clay, D. R., Goldstein, B. E., Neugebauer, M., and Snyder, C. W.: 1972,Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report, NASA-SP-289, 10-1 10-7.Google Scholar
  5. Colburn, D. S., Mihalov, J. D., and Sonett, C. P.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 2940–2957.Google Scholar
  6. Colburn, D. S., Currie, R. G., Mihalov, J. D., and Sonett, C. P.: 1967,Science 158, 1040.Google Scholar
  7. Coleman, P. J., Lichtenstein, B. R., Russell, C. T., Sharp, L. R., and Schubert, G.: 1972,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., Suppl. 3, 2271–2285.Google Scholar
  8. Criswell, D. R.: 1973,Proceedings of the Symposium on Photon and Particle Interactions with Surfaces in Space, to be published.Google Scholar
  9. Dryer, Murry: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3583–3584.Google Scholar
  10. Feuerbacher, B., Anderegg, M., Fitton, B., Laude, L. D., Willis, R. F., and Grard, R. J. L.: 1972,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., Suppl. 3, 2639–2653.Google Scholar
  11. Freeman, J. W.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 239–243.Google Scholar
  12. Gold, T.: 1966, inThe Solar Wind (ed. by R. J. Mackin, Jr., and M. Neugebauer.), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, p. 381.Google Scholar
  13. Grobman, W. D. and Black, J. L.: 1969,J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3943–3951.Google Scholar
  14. Hinteregger, H. E.: 1970,Ann. Geophys. 26, 547–554.Google Scholar
  15. Hollweg, J. V.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 7269–7276.Google Scholar
  16. Hollweg, J. V.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1209–1216.Google Scholar
  17. Hundhausen, A. J.: 1970,Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 8, 729–811.Google Scholar
  18. Hundhausen, A. J., Bame, S. J., Ashbridge, J. R., and Sydoriak, S. J.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4643–4657.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson, F. S.: 1961,Solar Radiation, Stanford Univ. Press, pp. 77–84.Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, F. S. and Midgley, J. E.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 1523–1532.Google Scholar
  21. Kaula, W. M. Schubert, G., Lingenfelter, R. E., Sjogren, W. L., and Wollenhaupt, W. R.: 1972,Geochim. Cosmochin. Acta., Suppl. 3,3, 2189–2204.Google Scholar
  22. Kreplin, Robert W.: 1970,Ann. Geophys. 26, 567–574.Google Scholar
  23. Lyon, E. F., Bridge, H. S., and Binsack, J. H.: 1967,J. Geophys. Res. 72, 6113–6117.Google Scholar
  24. Metzger, P. H.: 1965,J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879–1887.Google Scholar
  25. Mihalov, J. D., Sonett, C. P., Binsack, J. H., and Moutsoulas, M. D.: 1971,Science 171, 892–895.Google Scholar
  26. Ness, N. F., Behannon, K. W., Scearce, C. S., and Cantarano, S. C.: 1967,J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5769.Google Scholar
  27. Ness, N. F., Behannon, K. W., Taylor, H. E., and Whang, Y. C.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3421–3440.Google Scholar
  28. Ness, N. F., Hundhausen, A. J., and Bame, S. J.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 6643–6660.Google Scholar
  29. Neugebauer, M., Clay, D. R., Goldstein, B. E., and Snyder, C. W.: 1971,EOS 52, 910.Google Scholar
  30. Newburgh, R. G.: 1963,Phys. Rev. 132, 1570–1575.Google Scholar
  31. O'Brien, B. J. and Reasoner, D. L.: 1971,Apollo 14 Preliminary Science Report, NASA-SP-272, 193.Google Scholar
  32. Ogilvie, K. M., Scudder, J. D., and Sugiura, M.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8165–8173.Google Scholar
  33. Reasoner, David L. and Burke, William J.: 1972,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., Suppl. 3,3, 2639–2653.Google Scholar
  34. Schwartz, K., Sonett, C. P., and Colburn, D. S.: 1969,The Moon 1, 7–30.Google Scholar
  35. Serbu, G. P.: 1969,J. Geophys. Res. 74, 372–376.Google Scholar
  36. Serbu, G. P.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1703–1712.Google Scholar
  37. Singer, S. F. and Walker, E. H.: 1962,Icarus 1, 7–12.Google Scholar
  38. Siscoe, G. L., Lyon, E. F., Binsack, J. H., and Bridge, H. S.: 1969,J. Geophys. Rev. 74, 59.Google Scholar
  39. Snyder, C. W., Clay, D. R., and Neugebauer, M.: 1970,Apollo 12 Preliminary Science Report, NASA-SP-235, 75–81.Google Scholar
  40. Sommer, A. H.: 1968,Photoemissive Materials, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  41. Sonett, C. P. and Colburn, D. S.: 1967,Nature 216, 340.Google Scholar
  42. Sonett, C. P. and Colburn, D. S.: 1968,Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 1, 326.Google Scholar
  43. Sonett, C. P. and Mihalov, J. D.: 1972,J. Geophys. Rev. 77, 588–603.Google Scholar
  44. Sonett, C. P., Smith, B. F., Colburn, D. S., Schubert, G., and Schwartz, K.: 1972,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., Suppl. 3 3.Google Scholar
  45. Spicer, W. E.: 1968, inA Survey of Phenomena in Ionized Gases, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  46. Spreiter, J. R., Marsh, M. C., and Summers, A. L.: 1970,Cosmic Electrodyn. 1, 5–50.Google Scholar
  47. Strangway, D. W., Olhoeft, G. R., Chapman, W. B., and Carnes, J.: 1972,The Moon, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  48. Taylor, J. W. and Hartman, P. L.: 1959,Phys. Rev. 113, 1421–1435.Google Scholar
  49. Tidman, D. A.: 1967,Phys. Fluids 10, 547–564.Google Scholar
  50. Walbridge, Edward: 1970,The Photoelectron Layer 1. The Steady State, High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  51. Wende, Charles D.: 1972,Solar Phys. 22, 492–502.Google Scholar
  52. Whang, Y. C.: 1969,Phys. Rev. 186, 143–150.Google Scholar
  53. Whang, Y. C. and Ness, N. F.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6002–6010.Google Scholar
  54. Whang, Y. C. and Ness, N. F.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1109–1115.Google Scholar
  55. Wolfe, R. A.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 4281–4289.Google Scholar
  56. Wollenhaupt, W. R. and Sjogren, W. L.: 1972,The Moon 4, 337–347.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Criswell
    • 1
  1. 1.The Lunar Science InstituteHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations