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Variation of the chromosome phenotype in zea, solanum and salvia

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Summary

InSolanum lycopersicum pachytene chromosomes the gradient in chromomere size, originating on both sides of the kinetochore, reveals the following characteristics: 1. a relatively abrupt decrease in size of the large chromomeres, 2. the gradient is related to arm length in 9 of the 12 chromosomes, 3. the gradient is particularly irregular in the short arm of the nucleolar chromosome and in the long arm is not conspicuous, 4. chromosome 6 shows an abrupt interruption in the gradient close to the kinetochore.

Salvia viridis andZea mays chromosomes represent intermediate conditions between species with well defined and species without gradients. InSalvia the intermediate condition is manifested by the presence of a very large chromomere on each side of the kinetochore followed by very small chromomeres. In two chromosomes the intermediate condition is particularly apparent. In these chromosomes two chromomeres of intermediate size are present in the proximal region of the long arm. The nucleolar organizing arm has also an irregular pattern in this species.

Maize has a less distinct gradient than tomato in all its chromosomes. Chromosomes 3, 4, 5 and 8 are those where the gradient is the least sharp. The nucleolar organizing arm of chromosome 6 has also an irregular pattern.

In a translocation between chromosomes 5 and 6 of maize, a segment composed of very small chromomeres from the distal region of 5 which was moved to the right of the kinetochore of chromosome 6, did not change appreciably its phenotype after ten years of cultivation. During the period of cultivation a selection was made for plants where the original phenotype was preserved so that this result cannot be considered as demonstrating an absence of change in chromomere phenotype with changed position.

InDrosophila andChironomus salivary gland chromosomes where chromomeres are large, and no selection has been carried out with such a purpose, the pattern and nucleic acid content of the bands is known to change when rearrangements occur within the chromosome.

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Literature Cited

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Supported by a grant from the Swedish Natural Science Research Council toA. Lima-De-Faria. This work was partly carried out at the Department of Botany, University of Illinois, U.S.A. during a visit to this department byA. Lima-De-Faria.P. Sarvella's collaboration in this work was done during her stay at the University of Lund.

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Lima-de-Faria, A., Sarvella, P. Variation of the chromosome phenotype in zea, solanum and salvia. Chromosoma 13, 300–314 (1962). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00577045

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Keywords

  • Nucleic Acid
  • Salivary Gland
  • Intermediate Condition
  • Change Position
  • Distal Region