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Feedback inhibition of insulin and glucagon secretion by insulin is altered in abdominal obesity with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

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Abstract

We investigated the feedback inhibition of insulin and glucagon secretion during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp at about 350 pmol/l in 16 patients with abdominal obesity [8 with normal glucose tolerance (oNGT), 8 with impaired glucose tolerance (oIGT)] and 8 normal-weight subjects matched for age, sex and blood pressure. In oNGT and oIGT, fasting plasma C-peptide levels were twice those in the controls (962±51 and 915±85 vs 439±28 pmol/l,P<0.001) and their suppression was lower than in the controls, both in absolute terms (155±19 and 185±17 vs 274±18 pmol/l,P<0.001) and as a percentage decline from basal levels (16±2% and 21±2% vs 63±2%,P<0.001). Fasting plasma glucagon levels were similar in the patients and in the controls, but were less suppressed during clamp in oNGT and oIGT, both in absolute terms (7.0±0.9 and 5.6±0.6 vs 13.2±1.2 pmol/l,P<0.001) and as a percentage change from basal levels (23±3% and 19±2% vs 44±4%,P<0.001). These results suggest that the insulin feedback on B and A cells is impaired in abdominal obesity, and that this defect is of similar degree in oNGT and oIGT. These alterations could be implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinemia in obesity.

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Correspondence to P. Cavallo-Perin.

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Cavallo-Perin, P., Bruno, A., Seaglione, L. et al. Feedback inhibition of insulin and glucagon secretion by insulin is altered in abdominal obesity with normal or impaired glucose tolerance. Acta Diabetol 30, 154–158 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00572860

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Key words

  • Glucagon secretion
  • Glucose tolerance
  • Insulin secretion
  • Obesity