Advertisement

Coral Reefs

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 167–174 | Cite as

An early Holocene reef in the western Atlantic: submersible investigations of a deep relict reef off the west coast of Barbados, W.I.

  • I. G. Macintyre
  • K. Rützler
  • J. N. Norris
  • K. P. Smith
  • S. D. Cairns
  • K. E. Bucher
  • R. S. Steneck
Article

Abstract

Submersible observations and collections reveal that a probable relict reef off the west coast of Barbados has a rich cover of sponges, along with algae and scattered corals, on a substrate of algal nodules in a muddy-sand matrix. The collections provide new data on the distributions of these fauna. This relict reef is about 20 km long, has a relief of up to 10 m, and is established at a depth of 80 m. Relict shallow-water features in other areas at similar depths along with data from core holes drilled off the south coast of Barbados suggest that this reef was probably established about 12,000 years ago and existed for no more than 2,000 years, during the Holocene sea-level transgression.

Keywords

Nodule Sponge Holocene West Coast Sedimentology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott IA (1979) Some tropical species related toAntithannion (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae). Phycologia 18:213–227Google Scholar
  2. Adey WH (1979) Crustose coralline algae as microenvironmental indicators for the Tertiary. In: Gray J, Boucot AJ (eds) Historical biogeography, plate techonics and the changing environment. Oregon State University, Corvallis, pp 459–464Google Scholar
  3. Adey WH, Burke R (1976) Holocene biocherms (algal ridges and bank-barrier reefs) of the eastern Caribbean. Geol Soc Am Bull 87:93–109Google Scholar
  4. Adey WH, Macintyre IG, Stuckenrath R, Dill RF (1977) Relict barrier reef system off St. Croix: it's implications with respect to Late Cenozoic coral reef development in the western Atlantic. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:15–21Google Scholar
  5. Almodovar LR, Pagan FA (1967) Notes on the algae of Barbados. Nova Hedwigia 13:111–115Google Scholar
  6. Andel TH van, Veevers JJ (1967) Morphology and sediments of the Timor Sea. Australia Bur Min Res Geol Geophys Bull 83:173Google Scholar
  7. Blair SM, Norris JN (1988) The deep-water species ofHalimeda Lamouroux (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta) from San Salvador Island, Bahamas: species composition, distribution and depth records. Coral Reefs 6:227–236Google Scholar
  8. Cairns SD (1986) A revision of the northwest Atlantic Stylasteridae (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa). Smithson Contrib Zool 418:131Google Scholar
  9. Curray JR (1965) Late Quaternary history, continental shelves of the United States. In: Wright HE, Frey DG (eds) The Quaternary of the United States. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp 723–735Google Scholar
  10. Emery KO (1958) Shallow submerged marine terraces of southern California. Geol Soc Am Bull 69:39–59Google Scholar
  11. Fairbanks RG (1989) A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic sea-level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature 342:637–642Google Scholar
  12. Garrison LE, McMaster RL (1966) Sediments and geomorphology of the continental shelf off southern New England. Mar Geol 4:273–289Google Scholar
  13. Goreau TF (1961) Geological aspects of the structure of Jamaican coral reef communities. US Navy, Office of Naval Research, Biol Branch, Final Rept, 14 pGoogle Scholar
  14. Goreau TF, Wells JW (1967) The shallow-water Scleractinia of Jamaica: revised list of species and their vertical distribution range. Bull Mar Sci 17:442–453Google Scholar
  15. Gould HR, Stewart RH (1955) Continental terrace sediments in the northeastern Guld of Mexico. Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral Spec Pub 3:2–20Google Scholar
  16. Hanisak MD, Blair SM (1988) The deep-water macroalgal community of the east Florida continental shelf (USA). Helgol Meeresunters 42:133–163Google Scholar
  17. Harris PT, Davies PJ (1989) Submerged reefs and terraces on the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Morphology, occurrence and implications for reef evolution. Coral Reefs 8:87–98Google Scholar
  18. Heezen BC, Tharp M, Ewing WM (1959) The floors of the oceans. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper 65:122Google Scholar
  19. Lewis JB (1960) The coral reefs and coral communities of Barbados, WI. Can J Zool 38:1133–1145Google Scholar
  20. Lewis JB (1965) A preliminary description of some marine benthic communities from Barbados, West Indies. Can J Zool 43:1049–1074Google Scholar
  21. Lighty RG (1977) Relict shelf-edge Holocene coral reef: southeast coast of Florida. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:215–221Google Scholar
  22. Lighty RG, Macintyre IG, Stuckenrath R (1978) Submerged early Holocene barrier reef south-east Florida shelf. Nature 276:59–60Google Scholar
  23. Littler DS, Littler MM, Bucher KE, Norris JN (1989) Marine plants of the Carribbean. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC, 263 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Littler MM, Littler DS, Blair SM, Norris JN (1985) Deepest known plant discovered on an uncharted seamount. Science 227:57–59Google Scholar
  25. Logan BW, Harding JL, Ahr WM, Williams JD, Snead RG (1969) Late Quaternary carbonate sediments of Yucatan shelf Mexico. In: Logan BW et al (eds) Carbonate sediments and reefs, Yucatan shelf, Mexico. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 11, pp 5–128Google Scholar
  26. Macintyre IG (1967) Submerged coral reefs, west coast of Barbados, West Indies. Can J Earth Sci 4:461–474Google Scholar
  27. Macintyre IG (1971) Some submerged coral reefs in the Caribbean. Trans 5th Caribbean Geol Conf, Queens College Press, New York, pp 49–54Google Scholar
  28. Macintyre IG (1972) Submerged reefs of the eastern Caribbean. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 56:720–738Google Scholar
  29. Macintyre IG (1988) Modern coral reefs of western Atlantic: new geological perspective. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 72:1360–1369Google Scholar
  30. Macintyre IG, Milliman JD (1970) Physiographic features on the outer shelf and upper slope, Atlantic continental margin, southeastern United States. Geol Soc Am Bull 81:2577–2598Google Scholar
  31. Mazè H, Schramm H (1878) Essai de classification des algues de la Guadeloupe. Imprim Gouvernement, Basse-Terre Guadeloupe, pp XIX, 283, [III]Google Scholar
  32. Neumann AC, Macintyre IG (1985) Reef response to sea level rise: Keep-up, catch-up or give-up. 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 3:105–110Google Scholar
  33. Norris JN, Bucher KE (1982) Marine algae and seagrasses from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In: Rützler K, Macintyre IG (eds) The Atlantic barrier reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. I. Structure and communities. Smithson Contrib Mar Sci 12:167–223Google Scholar
  34. Nota DJG (1958) Sediments of the western Guiana shelf. Mededel Landbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, 58 98 pGoogle Scholar
  35. Parker RH, Curray JR (1956) Fauna and bathymetry of banks on continental shelf, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 40:2428–2439Google Scholar
  36. Reid RP, Macintyre IG (1988) Foraminiferal-algal nodules from the eastern Caribbean: growth history and implications on the value of nodules as paleoenvironmental indicators. Palaios 3:424–435Google Scholar
  37. Roberts HH, Sneider RM (1982) Reefs and associated sediments of Grand Cayman Island, BWI: recent carbonate sedimentation. Field trip guidebook prepared for 1982 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, New Orleans, La, 51 pGoogle Scholar
  38. Seiglie GA (1971) Relationships between the distribution ofAmphistegina and the submerged Pleistocene reefs off western Puerto Rico. Trans 5th Caribbean Geol Conf, Queens College Press, New York, p 141Google Scholar
  39. Shepard FP, Wrath WF (1937) Marine sediments around Catalina Island. J Sediment Petrol 7:41–50Google Scholar
  40. Soest RWM van, Stentoft N (1988) Barbados deep-water sponges. Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 215:140–143Google Scholar
  41. Steneck RS, Adey WH (1976) The role of environment in control of morphology inLithophyllum congestum, a Caribbean algal ridge builder. Bot Mar 19:197–215Google Scholar
  42. Taylor WR (1942) Caribbean marine algae of the Allan Hancock Expeditions, 1939. A Hancock Atlantic Exped 2:1–193Google Scholar
  43. Taylor WR (1960) Marine algae of the eastern tropical and subtropical coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich, 870 pGoogle Scholar
  44. Taylor WR (1967) A “Caulerpa” newly recorded from the West Indies. Botaniste 50:467–470Google Scholar
  45. Taylor WR (1969) Notes on the distribution of West Indian marine algae, particularly in the Lesser Antilles. Contrib Univ Mich Herb 9:125–203Google Scholar
  46. Vickers A, Shaw MA (1908) Phycologia Barbadensis: iconographie des algues marines récoltées à L'Ile Barbade (Antilles). (Chlorophycées et Phéophycees). Klincksieck, Paris, pp 1–32, 53 pls; pp 33–44, 34 plsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. G. Macintyre
    • 1
  • K. Rützler
    • 2
  • J. N. Norris
    • 3
  • K. P. Smith
    • 2
  • S. D. Cairns
    • 2
  • K. E. Bucher
    • 3
  • R. S. Steneck
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural HistorySmithsonian InstitutionWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of Invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural HistorySmithsonian InstitutionWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural HistorySmithsonian InstitutionWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.Darling Marine CenterUniversity of MaineWalpoleUSA

Personalised recommendations