Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Induction of male flowers in a pistillate line ofRicinus communis L. by silver and cobalt ions


Aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (10–100 μg/plant) and cobalt chloride (125–500 μg/plant), injected into the main stem of plants of the pistillate cv. 240 ofRicinus communis when the vegetative shoot apex was beginning to become reproductive, induced the formation of staminate (male) flowers with viable pollen in the normally strictly pistillate (female) terminal inflorescence, their number increasing with the dose of Ag+ and Co2+. No formation of bisexual flowers was noted. Female flowers pollinated with pollen from the induced male ones produced fruits and viable seeds.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ankineedu, G., Rao, N.G.P. (1973) Development of pistillate castor. Ind. J. Plant Breed.33, 416–422

  2. Atsmon, D., Lang, A., Light, N. (1968) Contents and recovery of gibberellins in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber plants. Plant Physiol.43, 806–810

  3. Augustine, J.J., Baker, L.R., Sell, H.M. (1973) Female flower induction on androecious cucumber,Cucumis sativus. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.98, 197–199

  4. Beyer, E., Jr. (1976) Silver ion: a potent antiethylene agent in cucumber and tomato. Hort. Sci.11, 195–196

  5. Brewbaker, J.L., Kwack, B.H. (1963). The essential role of calcium ion in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Am. J. Bot.50, 859–865

  6. Byers, R.E., Baker, L.R., Sell, H.M., Herner, R.C., Dilley, D.R. (1972) Ethylene: a natural regulator of sex expression in cucumber. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA69, 717–720

  7. Johansen, D.A. (1940) Plant microtechnique. McGraw Hill, New Delhi

  8. Juneja (née Satsangi), A. (1971) Effect of gibberellic acid on the mophology, histology and flowering of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Phytomorphology21, 235–246

  9. Lau, O.L., Yang, S.F. (1976) Inhibition of ethylene production by cobaltous ions. Plant Physiol.58, 114–117

  10. Mohan Ram, H.Y., Jaiswal, V.S. (1974) The possible role of ethylene and gibberellins in flower sex differentiation ofCannabis sativa. In: Plant growth substances 1973 (Proc. VIII Int Cong. on Plant Growth Substances), pp. 987–996. Hirokawa, Tokyo

  11. Mohan Ram, H.Y., Sett, R. (1979) Sex reversal in the female plants ofCannabis sativa by cobalt ions. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci.88, 303–308

  12. Rudich, J., Kedar, N., Halevy, A.H. (1970) Changed sex expression and possibilities for F1 hybrid seed production in some cucurbits bu application of Ethrel and Alar (B-995). Euphytica19, 47–53

  13. Rudich, J., Halevy, A.H., Kedar, N. (1972) The level of phytohormones in monoecious and gynoecious cucumbers as affected by photoperiod and Ethephon. Plant Physiol.50, 585–590

  14. Sarath, G., Mohan Ram, H.Y. (1979) Comparative effect of silver ion and gibberellic acid on the induction of male flowers on femaleCannabis plants. Experientia35, 333–334

  15. Shifriss, O. (1961) Gibberellin as sex regulator inRicinus communis. Science133, 2061–2062

  16. Spiegel, M.R. (1972) Theory and problems of statistics. McGraw Hill, New York

  17. Splittstoesser, W.E. (1970) Effects of 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid and gibberellic acid on sex expression and growth of pumpkins. Physiol. Plant.23, 762–768

  18. Stanley, R.G., Linskens, H.F. (1974) Pollen: biology, biochemistry, management. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mohan Ram, H.Y., Sett, R. Induction of male flowers in a pistillate line ofRicinus communis L. by silver and cobalt ions. Planta 149, 413–415 (1980).

Download citation

Key words

  • Cobalt
  • Flowers (sex expression)
  • Ricinus
  • Sex expression
  • Silver