Biochemical Genetics

, Volume 34, Issue 11–12, pp 443–452 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationship among all living species of the genusBubalus based on DNA sequences of the cytochromeb gene

  • Kazuaki Tanaka
  • Chester D. Solis
  • Joseph S. Masangkay
  • Kei-ichiro Maeda
  • Yoshi Kawamoto
  • Takao Namikawa


The cytochromeb genes of all living species ofBubalus, including the river type and the swamp type of domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), were sequenced to clarify their phylogenetic relationships. These sequences were compared together with the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and banteng (Bos javanicus) sequences as an outgroup. Phylogenetic trees ofBubalus species based on the DNA sequences of the cytochromeb gene demonstrated that the tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis), endemic to the Philippines, could be classified into the subgenusBubalus, not the subgenusAnoa. The divergence time between the lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) and the mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) was estimated at approximately 2.0 million years (Myr), which is almost the same as the coalescence time for theBubalus sequences. This large genetic distance supports the idea that the lowland anoa and the mountain anoa are different species. An unexpectedly large genetic distance between the river and the swamp type of domestic buffaloes suggests a divergence time of about 1.7 Myr, while the swamp type was noticed to have the closest relationship with the tamaraw (1.5 Myr). This result implies that the two types of domestic buffaloes have differentiated at the full species level.

Key words

Bubalus tamaraw anoa cytochromeb evolution 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuaki Tanaka
    • 1
  • Chester D. Solis
    • 2
  • Joseph S. Masangkay
    • 2
  • Kei-ichiro Maeda
    • 1
  • Yoshi Kawamoto
    • 3
  • Takao Namikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Agricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityChikusa, NagoyaJapan
  2. 2.College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of the Philippines at Los Baños, CollegeLagunaThe Philippines
  3. 3.Primate Research Institute of Kyoto UniversityInuyama, AichiJapan

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