A comparison of the lunar frontside gravity field with topography indicates that low-density (∼ 2.9 g cm−3) types of rock form a surface layer or crust of variable thickness: 40-60 km beneath terrae; 20-40 km beneath non-mascon maria; 0-20 km beneath mascon maria. The observed offset between lunar centers of mass and figure is consistent with farside crustal thicknesses of 40-50 km, similar to frontside terra thicknesses.
The Moon is asymmetric in crustal thickness, and also in the distribution of maria and gamma radioactivity. Early bombardment of the Moon by planetesimals, in both heliocentric and geocentric orbits, is examined as a possible cause of the asymmetries. The presence of a massive companion (Earth) causes a spin-orbit coupled Moon to be bombarded non-uniformly. The most pronounced local concentration of impacts would have occurred on the west limb of the Moon, when it orbited close to the Earth, if low-eccentricity heliocentric planetesimals were still abundant in the solar system at that time.
A very intense bombardment of this type could have redistributed crustal material on the Moon, thinning the west limb crust appreciably. This would have caused a change in position of the principal axes of inertia, and a reorientation of the spin-orbit coupled Moon such that the thinnest portion of its crust turned toward one of the poles. Erupting lavas would have preferentially flooded such a thin-crusted, low-lying area. This would have caused another readjustment of principal moments, and a reorientation of the Moon such that the mare areas tipped toward the equator. The north-south and nearside-farside asymmetries of mare distribution on the present Moon can be understood in terms of such a history.
KeywordsSurface Layer Solar System Principal Axis Gravity Field Variable Thickness
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