European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 171–176 | Cite as

Standardized mental stress in healthy volunteers induced by delayed auditory feedback (DAF)

  • M. Badian
  • E. Appel
  • D. Palm
  • W. Rupp
  • W. Sittig
  • K. Taeuber


Using delayed auditory feedback (delay 0.175 s) a standardized form of mental stress was investigated in 8 healthy male volunteers. After a resting period and a period of undelayed reading, the volunteers were exposed for 5 min to the DAF stress. During the DAF period heart rate increased by 10% and systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 9% and 18%, respectively. As a measure of acute sympathetic activation, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine rose by 68% and 49%, respectively. The activity of dopamine-β-hydroxylase in plasma was increased by 25%. From these results it can be concluded that the DAF procedure provides a suitable method for inducing a standardized mental stress in normal subjects, which can be measured as changes in biochemical and cardiovascular variables.

Key words

mental stress sympathetic activation delayed auditory feedback plasma norepinephrine plasma epinephrine plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Badian
    • 1
  • E. Appel
    • 2
  • D. Palm
    • 2
    • 3
  • W. Rupp
    • 1
  • W. Sittig
    • 1
  • K. Taeuber
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical DepartmentClinical Pharmacology, Hoechst AGFrankfurt am MainFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of FrankfurtFederal Republic of Germany
  3. 3.Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Zentrum der Pharmakologie Abteilung IVFrankfurt/Main 70Federal Republic of Germany

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