European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 171–176

Standardized mental stress in healthy volunteers induced by delayed auditory feedback (DAF)

  • M. Badian
  • E. Appel
  • D. Palm
  • W. Rupp
  • W. Sittig
  • K. Taeuber
Originals

Summary

Using delayed auditory feedback (delay 0.175 s) a standardized form of mental stress was investigated in 8 healthy male volunteers. After a resting period and a period of undelayed reading, the volunteers were exposed for 5 min to the DAF stress. During the DAF period heart rate increased by 10% and systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 9% and 18%, respectively. As a measure of acute sympathetic activation, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine rose by 68% and 49%, respectively. The activity of dopamine-β-hydroxylase in plasma was increased by 25%. From these results it can be concluded that the DAF procedure provides a suitable method for inducing a standardized mental stress in normal subjects, which can be measured as changes in biochemical and cardiovascular variables.

Key words

mental stress sympathetic activation delayed auditory feedback plasma norepinephrine plasma epinephrine plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson, F.O., Abuzzahab, F.S.: Demographic and psychometric features of anxious symptomatic volunteers. Psychopharmacol. Bull.13, 14–15 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Axelrod, J.: Dopamine-β-hydroxylase: Regulation of its synthesis and release from nerve terminals. Pharmacol. Rev.24, 233–243 (1972)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Badian, M., Appel, E., Palm, D., Rupp, W., Taeuber, K.: Acute increase of dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity (DBH) and catecholamines in human plasma during experimental stress. Pfluegers Arch.373, R 57 (1978)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burke, B.D.: Susceptibility to delayed auditory feedback and dependence on auditory or oral sensory feedback. J. Commun. Disord.8, 75–96 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benedict, C.R. Fillenz, M., Stanford, C.: Changes in plasma noradrenaline concentrations as a measure of release rate. Br. J. Pharmacol.64, 305–309 (1978)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christensen, N.J., Brandsborg, O.: The effect of standing and exercise on plasma catecholamines, serum insulin and serum gastrin. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.36, 591–595 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    DiMascio, A.: The use of “normals” in predicting clinical utility of psychotropic drugs; In: The psychopharmacology of the normal human. Evans, W.O. and Kline, N.S. (eds.), Springfield: C. C. Thomas 1971Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    v. Euler, U.S.: Pathophysiological aspects of catecholamine production. Clin. Chem.18, 1445–1448 (1972)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evans, W.O., Kline, N.S.: The psychopharmacology of the normal human. Springfield: C. C. Thomas 1971Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eysenck, H.J.: Das Maudsley Personality Inventory als Bestimmer der neurotischen Tendenz und Extraversion. Z. Exp. Angew. Psychol.6, 167–190 (1959)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frankenhäuser, M.: Behavior and circulating catecholamines. Brain Res.31, 241–262 (1971)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fröberg, J., Karlsson, C.-G., Levi, L., Lidberg, L.: Physiological and biochemical stress, reactions induced by psychosocial stimuli. In: Society, Stress and Disease. Vol. 1: The psychosocial environment and psychosomatic diseases. Levi, L. (ed.), pp. 280–295. London: Oxford University Press 1971Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geffen, L.B.: Serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase as an index of sympathetic function. Life Sci.14, 1593–1604 (1974)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gutman, J., Wahlefeld, A.W.: L-(+)-lactate. Determination with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD, In: Methods of enzymatic analysis. Bergmeyer, H.U. (ed.), Vol. 3, p. 1464. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie 1974Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hughes, F.W., Forney, R.B., Richards, A.B.: Comparative effect in human subjects of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and placebo on mental and physical performance. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.6, 139–145 (1965)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Janke, W., Debus, G.: Experimental studies on antianxiety agents with normal subjects: Methodological considerations and review of the main effects. In: Psychopharmacology, a review of Progress 1957–1967 (The proceedings of the sixth annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico. December 12–15, 1967). Washington: US Government Printing Office 1968Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Janke, W., Debus, G.: Pharmakopsychologische Untersuchungen an gesunden Probanden zur Prognose der therapeutischen Effizienz von Psychopharmaka. Arzneim. Forsch.25, 1095–1230 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klepping, J., Guilland, J.C., Claveyrolas, B., Truchot, R., Duserre, L., Dividier, J.P.: Corrélation entre activité dopamine-β-hydroxylase et taux catécholamines plasmatiques au cours de l'exercise musculaire. C. R. Soc. Biol.170, 1042–1046 (1976)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kopin, I.J., Lake, R.C., Ziegler, M.: Plasma levels of norepinephrine. Ann. Intern. Med.88, 671–680 (1978)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krombholz, H., Ruebeling, H.: Untersuchung zur Langzeitwirkung der verzögerten Sprachrückmeldung. Folia Phoniatr.26, 339–361 (1974)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lake, C.R., Ziegler, M.G., Kopin, K.J.: Use of plasma norepinephrine for evaluation of sympathetic neuronal function in man. Life Sci.18, 1315–1326 (1976)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee, B.S.: Effects of delayed speech feedback. J. Acoust. Soc. Am.22, 824–826 (1950)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lindman, R., Taxell, H.: The effects of alcohol and variable amount of cognitive stress on the estimation of time. Scand. J. Psychol.16, 65–71 (1975)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lorimer, A.R., MacFarlane, P.W., Provan, G., Duffy, T., Lawrie, T.D.V.: Blood pressure and catecholamine responses to “stress” in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Cardiovasc. Res.5, 169–173 (1971)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Palm, D., Grobecker, H.: Quantitative Parameter der sympathonervalen und sympatho-adrenalen Aktivität beim Menschen. Einfluß von β-Rezeptorenblockern. Arzneim. Forsch.27, 708–713 (1977)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Passon, P.G., Peuler, J.D.: A simplified radiometric assay for plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine. Anal. Biochem.51, 618–631 (1973)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pillard, R.C., McNair, D.M., Fisher, S.: Does marijuana enhance experimentally induced anxiety? Psychopharmacologia40, 205–210 (1974)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Planz, G., Wiethold, G., Appel, E., Böhmer, D., Palm, D., Grobecker, H.: Correlations between increased dopamin-β-hydroxylase activity and catecholamine concentration in plasma: determination of acute changes in sympathetic activity in man. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.8, 181–188 (1975)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stork, H., Schmidt, F.H.: Mitteilung über eine enzymatische Schnellmethode zur Bestimmung des Blutzuckers im Kapillarblut, ohne Enteiweißung. Klin. Wochenschr.46, 789–790 (1968)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taeuber, K., Appel, F., Badian, M., Palm, D., Rupp, W., Schofer, J., Sittig, W.: Effects of betablockers and benzodiazepines on stress induced by delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Abstr. NCDEU Annual Meeting, Key Biscayne/Florida, May 22–24, (1979)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Taeuber, K., Gammel, G., Gordon, A., Koeppen, D.: Methods for the assessment of psychotropic drug effects in healthy volunteers. In: Moderne Probleme der Pharmacopsychologie. Vol. 12, pp. 23–36. Basel: Karger 1977Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weinshilboum, R., Axelrod, J.: Serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity. Circ. Res.28, 307–315 (1971)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wroblewski, T.E., Markiewicz, L.: Excretion of catecholamines in urine under conditions of emotional stress (shocking movies). Int. Z. Angew. Physiol.31, 327–331 (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Badian
    • 1
  • E. Appel
    • 2
  • D. Palm
    • 2
    • 3
  • W. Rupp
    • 1
  • W. Sittig
    • 1
  • K. Taeuber
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical DepartmentClinical Pharmacology, Hoechst AGFrankfurt am MainFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of FrankfurtFederal Republic of Germany
  3. 3.Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Zentrum der Pharmakologie Abteilung IVFrankfurt/Main 70Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations