In a previous paper (J. Mater. Sci. 5 (1970) 149) a model was developed to predict the wetting behaviour between carbon and copper alloys containing 1 at. % of a carbide forming element. In the present paper it is shown that the model can be applied successfully to alloys containing as little as 0.15 at. % chromium or vanadium and as much as 13 at. % titanium. A further development of the model is its use to predict carbide surface energies, the values derived being in good agreement with literature data.
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Mortimer, D.A., Nicholas, M. The wetting of carbon and carbides by copper alloys. J Mater Sci 8, 640–648 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00561219