European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 461–466 | Cite as

Effect of zolpidem on sleep in insomniac patients

  • J. M. Monti


The effect of zolpidem 10 mg p.o. on sleep in patients with persistent psychophysiological insomnia was assessed by polysomnographic recordings.

An improvement in sleep with no rebound insomnia was observed during treatment for two weeks. Time awake after the onset of sleep was reduced after one week and increased after two weeks, whereas sleep latency remained reduced.

Zolpidem markedly increased the duration of Stage 2 sleep without affecting either slow wave sleep or REM sleep. Subjective evaluation of improvement in sleep was well correlated with sleep laboratory findings. Zolpidem did not impair the immediate memory or psychomotor performance of patients on the morning after its administration. Side-effects during the period of drug administration included drowsiness, fatigue, headache, anxiety and irritability. They were mild or moderate and wore off soon after awakening.

Key words

zolpidem insomnia sleep hypnotic imidazopyridine side-effects 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akiskal HS, Lemmi H, Yerevanian B, King D, Belluomini J (1982) The utility of the REM latency test in psychiatric diagnosis: A study of 81 depressed outpatients. Psychiatry Res 7: 101–110Google Scholar
  2. Arbilla S, Allen J, Wick A, Langer SZ (1986) High affinity [3H] zolpidem binding in the rat brain: An imidazopyridine with agonist properties at central benzodiazepine receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 130: 257–263Google Scholar
  3. Depoortere H, Zivkovic B, Lloyd KG, Sanger DJ, Perrault G, Langer SZ, Bartholini G (1986) Zolpidem, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. I. Neuropharmacological and behavioral effects. J Pharmacol exp Ther 237: 649–658Google Scholar
  4. Grünberger J (1977) Psychodiagnostik des Alkoholkranken. Methodischer Beitrag zur Bestimmung der Organizität in der Psychiatrie. Maudrich, WienGoogle Scholar
  5. Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand J Stat 6: 65–70Google Scholar
  6. Kales A, Kales JD (1984) Evaluation and treatment of insomnia. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Monti JM (1981) Sleep laboratory and clinical studies of the effects of triazolam, flunitrazepam and flurazepam in insomniac patients. Methods Find Expt Clin Pharmacol 3: 303–326Google Scholar
  8. Monti JM, Debellis J, Gratadoux E, Alterwain P, Altier H, D'Angelo L (1982) Sleep laboratory study of the effects of midazolam in insomniac patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 21: 479–484Google Scholar
  9. Monti JM, Alterwain P, Debellis J, Altier H, Pellejero T, Monti D (1987) Short-term sleep laboratory evaluation of midazolam in chronic insomniacs. Arzneimittelforsch/Drug Res 37: 54–57Google Scholar
  10. Monti JM (1988) Toward a third generation of hypnotics. In: Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL (eds) Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Nicholson AN, Pascoe DA (1986) Hypnotic activity on an imidazopyridine (zolpidem). Br J Clin Pharmacol 21: 205–211Google Scholar
  12. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (1968) A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages in human subjects. National Institute of Health Publ. 204. US Government Printing Office, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Roth T, Zorick F, Witting R, Roehrs T (1982) Pharmacological and medical considerations in hypnotic use. Sleep 5: S46-S52Google Scholar
  14. Thénot JP, Hermann PH, Durand A, Burke JT, Allen J, Garrigau D, Vajta S, Albin H, Thébault JJ, Olive G, Warrington SJ (1988) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of zolpidem in various animal species and humans. In: Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL (eds) Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Wechsler D (1977) A manual for the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. Psychological Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Williams RL, Karacan I (1978) Introduction. In: Williams RL, Karacan I (eds) Sleep disorders. Diagnosis and treatment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Monti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and TherapeuticsClinics HospitalMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations