Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 15, Issue 9, pp 2197–2206

The wetting of alumina by copper alloyed with titanium and other elements

  • M. G. Nicholas
  • T. M. Valentine
  • M. J. Waite
Papers

DOI: 10.1007/BF00552307

Cite this article as:
Nicholas, M.G., Valentine, T.M. & Waite, M.J. J Mater Sci (1980) 15: 2197. doi:10.1007/BF00552307

Abstract

The wettability of alumina by ternary alloys of copper, titanium and aluminium, gallium gold, indium, nickel or silver has been investigated using sessile drop tests conducted in vacuum at 1050–1250° C. Substantial additions of titanium are known to induce copper to wet alumina due to the formation of a titanium rich reaction product at the alloy/ ceramic interface, but the present work has shown that the concentration of titanium can be reduced by the addition of ternary alloying elements. Additions of indium are very beneficial, of aluminium, gold or silver are moderately beneficial, and of gallium or nickel are of negligible benefit or detrimental. These observations, and previous work with copper-tin-titanium alloys [1] can be interpreted in terms of effects on the activity of titanium which it is argued will be enhanced if the ternary alloying element has a low surface energy and is readily saturated by titanium. The correlation of the experimental wetting observations with the surface energy and titanium solubility data for the ternary alloying elements provides a basis for the rational development of reactive metal brazes for joining unmetallized ceramics.

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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Nicholas
    • 1
  • T. M. Valentine
    • 1
  • M. J. Waite
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Development DivisionAERE HarwellOxonUK

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