The hygienic quality of the water of the Kerava river, southern Finland, deteriorates occasionally. The purpose of the study was to design a real-time monitoring system that would inform the public using the river for recreational purposes about the changes in water quality. The system was constrained to consist of on-line sensing of water quality and quantity, and adjacent forecasting models. Four different system alternatives were analyzed and compared. The first alternative observes river flow in real-time; the second alternative also monitors water temperature, turbidity, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. The data collected in this way are used to forecast Streptococcus and E. coli concentrations, using canonical correlation and regression analysis. The third configuration is a two-step procedure, where river flow is first predicted by an ARMAX model and the hygienic state is then based on the flow estimate, as in the first assemblage. The most expensive monitoring system, which at present is the least well-known, is to apply the Lidar system, where the hygienic status of the river quality is observed directly using laser technology, placing less emphasis on modeling. In this paper, the alternatives are formulated and a preliminary comparison is made, using the criteria of operational feasibility, prediction uncertainty, investment and maintenance costs, and suitability for in-situ monitoring.
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Kløve, B., Kettunen, J., Varis, O. et al. A real-time monitoring system for Kerava river quality. Environ Monit Assess 24, 167–180 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00547985
- Water Quality
- Dissolve Oxygen
- River Flow