Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effectiveness of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies

Abstract

Non-CO2 greenhouse gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide, can make a relevant contribution to the enhanced greenhouse effect, and hence emission reduction is desirable. In emission reduction inventories, both the magnitude of the emission reduction as well as the specific emission reduction costs should be determined. The current knowledge of the potential for and costs of reducing these emissions is still limited. Taking this into account, the following results can be obtained. Methane emissions can be considerably reduced from underground coal mining, oil production, natural gas operations, landfilling of waste, and wastewater treatment. Also emissions from enteric fermentation and animal manure can be reduced substantially. The total technical potential for methane emission reduction (given the present activity level) is estimated to be about one third. The economic potential, having net negative emission reduction costs, is estimated to be about half of this value. These reductions can be attained over a period of 10 – 20 years. The technical potential for the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions is currently estimated to be less than 10% Apart from the possibility of implementing existing techniques, there seems to be considerable room for developing techniques for more far-reaching emission reductions both for methane and nitrous oxide.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. van Amstel, A.R., Swart, R.J., Krol, M.S., Beck, J.P., Bouwman, A.F., van der Hoek, K.W.: 1993a, ‘Methane, the Other Greenhouse Gas’, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands, April.

  2. van Amstel, A.R. (ed.), 1993b: ‘Methane and Nitrous Oxide’, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

  3. Bakema, G.F., Kroon, P.: 1988, ‘Avoid or Control’, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ESC-44, Petten, May.

  4. Baudino, M., Volski, E.: 1991, ‘Abating Methane Emissions by Reducing Natural Gas Leakages’, presented at ESETT '91, Milan, Italy, 21 – 25 October.

  5. Banerjee, N.: 1991, ‘Compressor Scheme will Reduce Gas Flaring in India's Oil Fields’, Oil & Gas Journal, April, pp. 62 – 64

  6. Block, K., 1989: ‘Data Acquisition on New Coal Conversion Techniques’, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University (in Dutch).

  7. Blok, K., Turkenburg, W.C., Hendriks, C.A., Steinberg, M.: 1992, ‘Proceedings of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal’, Energy Conversion and Management, 33, pp. 283–826.

  8. Blok, K., Worrell, E., Cuelenaere, R.F.A., Turkenburg, W.C.: 1993, ‘The Cost-Effectiveness of CO2 Emission Reduction Achieved by Energy Conservation’, Energy Policy, 21, pp. 656–667.

  9. van den Born, G.J., Bouwman, A.F., Olivier, J.G.J., Swart, R.J., 1991: ‘The Emission of Greenhouse Gases in the Netherlands’, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Report No. 222901003, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

  10. Braatz, B., Hogan, K. (eds.), 1991: ‘Sustainable Rice Productivity and Methane Reduction Research Plan, U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radiation, Washington, USA (cited in: [EPA, 1992b]).

  11. British Gas plc: 1993, ‘Methodology for Determining Emissions from the Onshore U.K. Natural Gas Industry’, London, January.

  12. van der Burg, T.: 1992, ‘Negative Cost Options for Energy-Saving; an Interpretation from the Economic Perspective’, Free University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, draft.

  13. Clough, P: 1989, ‘Getting Back Into Condition’, Gas Engineering and Management, 29, pp. 302–311.

  14. CPB: 1989, ‘Economic Effects of Three Scenarios for Environmental Policy in the Netherlands up to 2010’, Central Planning Bureau, Working Paper no. 29, The Hague.

  15. Crutzen, P.J., Andreae, M.O., 1990: ‘Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles’, Science, 250, pp. 1669–1678.

  16. EAP: 1991, ‘Environmental Action Plan of the Energy Distribution Sector, Steering Group Integrated Environmental Policy Plan Energy Distribution Sector, EnergieNed, Arnhem, February.

  17. Ebert, C., Picard, D., Pope, P., Rosland, A.: 1993, ‘Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas’, from: [Van Amstel, 1993b].

  18. Economic Affairs, Ministry of: 1992, ‘Environmental Action Plan Offshore’, Target Group Consultation between Nogepa (oil and gas industry) and the Ministry, The Hague.

  19. EPA: 1992a, ‘Anthropogenic Methane Emissions in the United States’, Global Change Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Review Draft, October.

  20. EPA: 1992b, ‘Options for Reducing Methane Emissions Internationally, Vol. I: Technological Options for Reducing Methane Emissions’, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Global Change Division, Office of Air and Radiation, Washington, D.C. (Review Draft).

  21. Faaij, A., Blok, K., Worrell, E., 1992: ‘Gasification of Wet Biomass Waste-streams for Electricity Production’, Proc. of the 7th European Conference on Biomass for Energy and Environment, 5 – 9 October, Florence.

  22. Feron, P.H.M., Jansen, A.E., Klaassen, R., ter Meulen, B.Ph., Akkerhuis, J.J., van Maanen, H.C.H.J.: 1992, ‘Development of Membrane Based Absorption and Extraction Processes and Equipment’, TNO Institute of Environmental and Energy Technology, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands.

  23. van Gelder, J.W.: 1993: ‘More Natural Gas Coming from Russia, but When?’, Gas, July/August.

  24. Gibbs, M.J., Leng, R.A., 1993: ‘Methane Emissions from Livestock’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  25. Grubb, M., Edmonds, J., ten Brink, P., Morrison, M.: 1993, ‘The Costs of Limiting Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: A Survey and Analysis’, Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 18, pp. 397–478.

  26. van Heijningen, R.J.J., de Castro, J.F.M., Worrell, E., Hazewinkel, J.H.O.: 1992, ‘More Gross Energy Requirements in Relation to Prevention and Reuse of Waste Streams’, Castro Consulting Engineer, Amersfoort, the Netherlands (in Dutch).

  27. Hohmeyer, O.: ‘Social Costs of Energy Consumption’, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1988.

  28. Hohmeyer, O., Ottinger, R.L. (eds.): 1991, ‘External Environmental Costs of Electric Power’, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

  29. Heuwieser: 1993. Personal communication from Dr. Heuwieser, Degussa, Frankfurt, Germany.

  30. Houghton, J.T., Jenkins, G.J., Ephraums, J.J.: 1990, ‘Climate Change, the IPCC Scientific Assessment’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  31. Houghton, J.T., Callander, B.A., Varney, S.K., 1992: ‘Climate Change 1992, The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  32. Iwasaki, Y., Tatsuichi, S., Ueno, H.: 1992, ‘N2O Emissions from Stationary Sources’, Proc. of the 5th International Workshop on Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Tsukuba, Japan, July 1–3.

  33. de Jager, D., Blok, K. 1993, ‘Cost-Effectiveness of Emission-Reducing Measures for Methane in the Netherlands’, Ecofys Research and Consultancy, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Cost figures in this report are given in Dutch guilders. The conversion to US$ is done at a rate of 0.5 $/Dfl.

  34. Johansson, T.B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A.K.N., Williams, R.H.: 1993, ‘Renewable Energy, Sources for Fuels and Electricity’, Island Press, Washington D.C.

  35. Khalil, M.A.K., 1993: ‘Working Group Report: Methane Emissions from Rice Fields’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  36. King, K., Munasinghe, M.: 1992, ‘Cost-Effective Means to Limit the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in Developing Countries’, World Bank, Environmental Department, Divisional Working Paper No. 1992–30.

  37. van der Knijff, A., Jumelet, J.C., Jong, H.B.A., 1991: ‘Conversion Techniques for Organic Wastes’, NOVEM, Utrecht, report no. NOH-9013 (in Dutch).

  38. Koomey, J.: 1990, ‘Comparative Analysis of Monetary Estimates of External Environmental Costs Associated with Combustion of Fossil Fuels’, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, LBL-28313, Berkeley, CA, USA.

  39. Lama, R.D.: 1992, ‘Methane Gas Emission from Coal Mining in Australia: Estimates and Control Strategies’, Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Coal, the Environment and Development: Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, OECD/IEA, Paris.

  40. Lettinga, G., de Man, A., van der Last, A.R.M., Wiegant, W., van Knippenberg, K., Frijns, J., van Buuren, J.C.L.: 1993, ‘Anaerobic Treatment of Domestic Sewage and Wastewater’, Water Science and Technology, 27, (1993) pp. 67–73.

  41. Lettinga, G., van den Haandel, A.C.: 1993, ‘Anaerobic Digestion for Energy Production and Environmental Protection’, from [Johansson et al., 1993].

  42. Lexmond, M.: 1993, Wageningen Agricultural University, written communication, December 12.

  43. Lott, R.A., 1992: ‘Emissions and Mitigation of Methane from the Natural Gas Industry’, presented at the Symposium on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Mitigation Research, Gas Research Institute, August.

  44. Lovins, A.B., Lovins, L.H.: 1991, ‘Least-Cost Climatic Stabilization’, Annu. Rev. Energy Environ., 16, pp. 433–531.

  45. Manne, A.S., Richels, R.G.: 1992, ‘Buying Greenhouse Insurance: the Economic Costs of CO2 Emission Limits’, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.

  46. Miller, R.J.: 1991, ‘Maintaining a Cast Iron System’, Pipeline and Gas Journal, September 1989, pp. 54 – 63.

  47. Mitchell, C., Sweet, J., Jackson, T.: 1990, ‘A Study of Leakage from the UK Natural Gas Distribution System’, Energy Policy, November, pp. 809 – 818.

  48. Meuleman, B., 1993: ‘Energy Conservation by More Efficient Fertilizer Use’, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University (in Dutch).

  49. Minami, K., 1993: ‘Methane from Rice Production’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  50. Mosier, A.R., 1993: ‘Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  51. Mosier, A.R., Bouwman, A.F., 1993: ‘Working Group report: Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  52. Nielen, R.J., 1991: ‘Quantification of Methane Emissions Caused by Natural Gas Losses and Oil Production in the Netherlands’, TNO-IMET, Apeldoorn (in Dutch).

  53. OECD: 1991, ‘Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, Final Report from OECD Experts Meeting’, Revised version, OECD, Paris, France (m between a more recent versions is published: ‘Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Vol. I: Reporting Instructions, Vol. II: Workbook, Vol. III: Reference Manual’, Final Draft, IPCC/OECD Joint Programme, Paris, December 1993).

  54. Okken, P.A., Kram, T., Lako, P., Ybema, J.R., van Doorn, J., Gerbers, D.: 1993, ‘Drastic CO2 Reduction, How is it Possible’, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten, the Netherlands (in Dutch).

  55. OLF (The Norwegian Oil Industry Association): 1993, ‘OLF Environmental Programme, Phase I’, Summary Report, Stavanger, Norway, March.

  56. Olivier, J.G.J., 1993: ‘Working Group Report: Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fuel Combustion and Industrial Processes’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  57. Pistorius, G.F.P.: 1992, Gastec, Apeldoorn, personal communication, August 25.

  58. Reimer, R.A., Parett, R.A., Slaten, C.S.: 1992, ‘Abatement of N2O Emissions Produced in Adipic Acid Manufacture’, Proc. of the 5th International Workshop on Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Tsukuba, Japan, July 1–3.

  59. Reox: 1993. Personal communication and written documentation from Reox Environmental Systems BV, Oss, the Netherlands.

  60. Sugten, R., Williams, A.: 1978, ‘The Principles of Practical Cost-benefit Analysis’, Oxford University Press.

  61. Smith, I.M., Sloss, L.L.: 1992, ‘Methane Emissions from Coal’, IEA Coal Research, London.

  62. de Soete, G.G.: 1993, ‘Nitrous Oxide from Combustion and Industry: Chemistry, Emissions and Control’, from [van Amstel, 1993b].

  63. South, D.W., Saricks, C.L., Gilette, J.L., Streets, D.G.: 1988, ‘The Causes and Effects of Acidic Deposition, Vol. II: Emissions and Control’, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

  64. Steeman, J.W.M., van Cooten, P., Jacobs, H.: 1984: ‘Some Energy Economic Aspects of the Man-made Fiber Industry’, presentation at the 20. Internationaler Chemiefasertagung, DSM, Geleen, the Netherlands.

  65. Thorneloe, S.A.: 1993, ‘Methane from Waste Water Treatment’, from [Van Amstel, 1993b].

  66. Thiemens, M.H., Trogler, W.C.: 1991, ‘Nylon Production: An Unknown Source of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide’, Science, 251, pp. 932–934

  67. Veenstra, T.: 1992, ‘Methane Reduction in the Gas Transportation System’, presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association, Gasunie, Groningen.

  68. UNEP: 1991, ‘Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel; Montreal Protocol 1991 Assessment’, Nairobi, Kenya, December.

  69. Watson, R.T., Meira Filho, L.G., Sanhueza, E., Janetos, A., 1992: ‘Greenhouse Gases: Sources and Sinks’, from [Houghton, 1992].

  70. Wilson, D., Swisher, J.: 1993, ‘Exploring the Gap, Top-down versus Bottom-up Analyses of the Cost of Mitigating Global Warming’, Energy Policy, March.

  71. van Wijk, A.J.M., Turkenburg, W.C.: 1991, ‘The Value of Wind Energy’, Proceedings of the British Wind Energy Association Conference, Swansea, UK.

  72. Ybema, J.R., Okken, P.A.: 1993, ‘Full Fuel Chains and the Basket of Greenhouse Gases’, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, September (draft).

  73. Zeeman, G., Hamelers, H.V.M. 1992: ‘Prediction of Methane Production in Manure Digesters and Manure Storage — Summary’, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands (in Dutch).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Blok, K., de Jager, D. Effectiveness of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies. Environ Monit Assess 31, 17–40 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00547178

Download citation

Keywords

  • Animal Manure
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Emission Reduction
  • Methane Emission
  • Nitrous Oxide Emission