Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 9, Issue 10, pp 1715–1736 | Cite as

Radiation damage and electron microscopy of organic polymers

  • D. T. Grubb
Review

Abstract

A condensed description is given of the fundamental processes involved in radiation damage and the effects of radiation on the physical and chemical properties of organic materials, particularly polymers. It is shown that the radiation doses received by specimens in the electron microscope are extremely high, very much greater than those used in radiation chemistry experiments. Because of this, only qualitative predictions of behaviour in the electron microscope can be made. A number of authors have described the changes in the image or diffraction pattern of particular specimen types during observation in the electron microscope and their work is reviewed here. In general, contrast features in the image may disappear, due to loss of mass or crystallinity, or new features may appear due to distortion of ordered regions. The effects of radiation damage on attainable resolution, and possible methods of improving the resolution are then discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. T. Grubb and A. Keller, Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972) p. 554.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. C. Williams and H. W. Fischer, J. Molec. Biol. 52 (1970) 121Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Kato, J. Polymer Sci. B4 (1966) 35.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Pines, Rev. Mod. Phys. 28 (1956) 184.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. R. Freeman, J. Chem. Phys. 46 (1967) 2822.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. K. Thomas and R. V. Bensasson, ibid 46 (1967) 4147.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. J. Hardwick, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 36 (1963) 267.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. S. Copeland, T. Sanner and A. Pihl, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 18 (1970) 85.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Collinson, J. J. Conley and F. S. Dainton, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 36 (1963) 153.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. L. Magee, ibid 36 (1963) 232.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Williams, in “Fundamental Processes in Radiation Chemistry”, edited by P. Ausloos (Interscience, New York, 1968) p. 518.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Ausloos, Ed., “Fundamental Processes in Radiation Chemistry” (Interscience, New York, 1968).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. W. I. Spink and R. J. Woods, “An Introduction to Radiation Chemistry” (Wiley, New York, 1964).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Chapiro, “Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems” (Interscience, New York, 1962).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Stenn and G. F. Bahr, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 31 (1970) 526.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. L. Hall, R. O. Bolt and J. G. Carroll, in “Radiation Effects on Organic Materials” edited by R. O. Bolt and J. G. Carroll (Academic Press, New York, 1963).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. H. Partridge, J. Chem. Phys. 52 (1970) 2485.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Charlesby, Proc. Roy. Soc. A215 (1952) 817.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Dole, C. D. Keeling and D. G. Rose, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76 (1954) 4304.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. N. Provednikov, Yin-Shen-Kan and S. S. Medvedev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 122 (1958) 254.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. O. Geymer, Makromolek. Chem. 100 (1967) 186.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Salovey and A. Keller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40 (1961) 1397.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Kawai, A. Keller, A. Charlesby and M. G. Ormerod, Phil. Mag. 12 (1965) 657, see also following papers to p. 718.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. N. Patel, L. D'Ilario, A. Keller and E. Martuscelli, Makromolek. Chem. 175 (1974) 983.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Mandelkern, in “The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules”, edited by M. Dole (Academic Press, New York and London, 1972).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Alexander and R. M. Charlesby, Proc. Roy. Soc. 232 (1955) 31.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. T. Morgan, R. Sheldon and G. B. Stapledon, RPP/13 Rutherford High Energy Lab. Chilton Didcot, Berkshire, England (1969).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Alexander, L. D. G. Hamilton and K. A. Stacey, Nature 216 (1967) 1208.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. P. Kusy and D. T. Turner, Macromolecules 4 (1971) 3.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Charlesby and M. Ross, Proc. Roy. Soc. A217 (1953) 122.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Charlesby, J. Polymer Sci. 10 (1953) 201.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. P. Slichter and E. R. Mandell, J. Phys. Chem. 62 (1958) 234.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Blackburn, A. Charlesby and R. J. Woods, Eur. Polymer J. 1 (1965) 161.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. F. Williams, H. Matsuo and M. Dole, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80 (1958) 2595.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Alexander and A. Charlesby, Nature 173 (1954) 578.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    V. V. Voevodskii and Yu. N. Molin, Radiat. Res 17 (1962) 366.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. J. Hart and R. L. Platzmann, in “Mechanisms in Radiobiology”, edited by M. Errara and A. Forseberg (Academic Press, New York, 1961).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    B. Pullman and A. Pullman, “Quantum Biochemistry” (Interscience, New York, 1963).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. W. Menter, Proc. Roy. Soc. A236 (1956) 115.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    N. Uyeda, T. Kobayashi, M. Ohara, M. Watanabe, T. Taoku and Y. Hawada, Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics London and Bristol, 1972) p. 566.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    N. Uyeda, T. Kobayashi and E. Suito, J. Appl. Phys. 43 (1972) 5181.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Charlesby, “Atomic Radiation and Polymers” (Pergamon, Oxford, 1960).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Dole, Ed., “The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules” (Academic Press, New York and London, 1972).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. J. Dienes and G. H. Vineyard, “Radiation Effects in Solids” (Interscience, New York, 1957) Chapter 3.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    V. E. Cosslett, Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Meeting of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Cambridge (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1971) p. 6.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Charlesby, A. R. Gould and K. J. Ledbury, Proc. Roy. Soc. A277 (1964) 348.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. T. Grubb, J. Phys. E; Sci. Instrum. 4 (1971) 222.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    L. H. Bolz, D. H. Reneker and K. W. Yee, ibid 5 (1972) 1039.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. G. Drummond, ibid 4 (1971) 247.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Von Orth and E. W. Fischer, Makromolek. Chem. 88 (1965) 188.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. Kiho and P. Ingram, ibid 118 (1968) 45.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. A. Bethe, Handbuch der Physik 24(1) (1933) p. 273 et seq. Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. E. Lea, “Actions of Radiation on Living Cells” 2nd Edn. (Cambridge University Press, London and New York, 1955).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    W. Lippert, Optik 15 (1958) 293.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    R. E. Burge and D. L. Misell, Phil. Mag. 18 (1968) 251.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. L. Misell and R. A. Crick, J. Phys. C 2 (1969) 2290.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. M. Routh and J. A. Simpson, Radiat. Res. 22 (1964) 643.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    V. E. Cosslett, Berichte der Bunsen-Gesellschaft 74 (1970) 1171.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. W. Agar, F. C. Frank and A. Keller, Phil. Mag. 4 (1959) 32.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    L. Reimer, Lab. Invest. 14 (1965) 1082.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Brockes, Z. fur Physik 149 (1957) 353.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    L. Reimer and R. Christenhusz, Lab. Invest. 14 (1965) 1158.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    T. P. Sciacca and A. G. Eubanks, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37 (1966) 1019.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    T. Nagasawa and K. Kobayashi, J. Appl. Phys. 41 (1970) 4279.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. R. Epp, H. Weiss and A. Santomasso, Radiat. Res. 34 (1968) 320.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. W. Heavens, A. Keller, J. M. Pope and D. M. Rowell, J. Mater. Sci. 5 (1970) 53.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    A. Colebrook and A. Windle, Proceedings of the Scanning Electron Microscope Systems and Applications Conference series no. 18 (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1973) p. 132.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. T. Grubb and A. Keller, J. Mater. Sci. 7 (1972) 822.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    L. Reimer, Z. Naturforsch. 145 (1959) 566.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    W. Lippert, Proceedings of the European Regional Conference on Electron Microscopy, Delft (De Nederlanske Vereniging Voor Elecktronenmicroscopie, Delft 1960) Vol 2 p. 682.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. Lippert, Optik 19 (1962) 145.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    A. Cosslett, J. Roy. Micros. Soc. 79 (1960) 263.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    B. C. Hill and G. B. Haydon, Proceedings of the 30th Annual EMSA meeting, C. J. Arceneaux (Claitors, Los Angeles, 1972) p. 688.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. W. Edie and U. L. Karlsson, J. Microscopie 13 (1972) 13.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    G. L. Claver and W. H. Farnham, Powder Technology 6 (1972) 313.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    R. E. Thach and S. S. Thach, Biophysics J. 11 (1971) 204.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    G. F. Bahr, F. B. Johnson and E. Zeitler, Lab. Invest. 14 (1965) 1115.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Stenn and G. F. Bahr, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 18 (1970) 574.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. S. Y. Yeh, J. Macromol Sci. Phys. B6 (3) (1972) 451.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    K. Kobayashi and K. Sakaoku, Lab. Invest. 14 (1965) 1097.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    R. Hosemann and S. W. Baggchi, “Direct Analysis of Diffraction by Matter” (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1962).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    G. Siegel, Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Grenoble (1970) p. 221.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Idem, Z. Naturforsch. 27a (1972) 325.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. T. Grubb and G. W. Groves, Phil. Mag. 24 (1971) 815.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    E. L. Thomas and D. G. Ast, Polymer 15 (1974) 37.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    I. G. Stoyanova, Proceedings of the 6th Congress on Electron Microscopy Kyoto 1966, (Maruzen, Tokyo) Vol 1 p. 581.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    R. M. Glaeser, V. E. Cosslett and U. Valdre, J. Microscopie 12 (1971) 133.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    J. A. Venables and D. C. Bassett, Nature 214 (1967) 1107.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    G. Honjo and M. Watanabe, Nature 181 (1958) 326.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. G. Dobb, Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972) p 564.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    L. W. Hobbs, Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Meeting of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group, Cambridge (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1971) p. 178.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    K. Kobayashi and M. Ohara, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Kyoto 1966 (Maruzen, Tokyo) Vol 1 p. 579.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    L. E. Thomas, C. J. Humphreys, W. R. Duff and D. T. Grubb, Radiat. Effects 3 (1970) 89.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    E. M. Belavtseva, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 125 (1959) 1005.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    D. T. Grubb, D.Phil. Thesis, Oxford University 1970.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    N. A. Weir, Radiat. Effects 11 (1971) 23.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    V. F. Holland and P. H. Lindenmeyer, Science 147 (1965) 1296.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    G. S. Y. Yeh, J. Macromol. Sci. Phys. B6 (3) (1972) 451.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    W. Wilke, W. Vogel and R. Hosemann, Kolloid Z.u.Z. Polymere 237 (1970) 317.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    E. L. Thomas, S. L. Sass and E. J. Kramer, J. Polymer Sci. Polymer Phys. 12 (1974) 1015.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. J. Point, Bull. Acad. R. Belg. Cl. Sci. 41 (1955) 982.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    H. D. Keith and F. J. Padden, J. Polymer Sci. 39 (1959) 101, 123.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    A. Keller, ibid 39 (1959) 151.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Idem, Nature 171 (1953) 170.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    F. P. Price, J. Polymer Sci. 37 (1959) 71.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    A. Keller and D. C. Bassett, J. Roy. Micros. Soc. 79 (1960) 243.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    R. G. Claver, R. Buchdahl and R. L. Miller, J. Polymer Sci. 20 (1956) 202.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    P. H. Geil, “Polymer Single Crystals”, Polymer Reviews 5 (Interscience, New York, 1963) p. 229.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    E. H. Andrews, M. W. Bennett and A. Markham, J. Polymer Sci. A-2, 5 (1967) 1235.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Dlugosz and A. Keller, J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 5776.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    D. T. Grubb, A. Keller and G. W. Groves, J. Mater. Sci. 7 (1972) 131.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    R. W. Ditchfield, D. T. Grubb and M. J. Whelan, Phil. Mag. 27 (1973) 1267.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    E. H. Andrews, Proc. Roy. Soc. A270 (1962) 232Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    R. G. Scott, J. Appl. Phys. 28 (1957) 1089.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    A. Keller and E. Englman, J. Polymer Sci. 36 (1969) 361.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    C. G. Cannon and P. H. Harris, J. Macromol. Sci. Phys. B3 (1969) 357.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    F. Khoury, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 70A (1966) 29.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    S. F. Pullen, E. C. Fleet, D. E. Meyer and K. Thomas, Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972) p. 258.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    J. Dlugosz, D. T. Grubb, A. Keller and M. B. Rhodes, J. Mater. Sci. 7 (1972) 142.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    J. E. Breedon, J. F. Jackson, M. J. Marcinkowski and M. E. Taylor Jun, ibid 8 (1973) 1071.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    A. Keller, Phil. Mag 6 (1961) 63.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    S. Yamaguchi, Z. Angew. Phys. 8 (1956) 221.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    B. Von Borries and W. Glaser, Kolloid Z. 106 (1944) 123.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    M. J. Whelan, P. B. Hirsch, R. W. Horne and W. Bollmann, Proc. Roy. Soc. A240 (1957) 524Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    K. Kanaya, J. Electronmicroscopy 3 (1955) 1.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    B. Gale and K. F. Hale, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 12 (1961) 115.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    M. Watanabe, T. Someya and Y. Nagahama, Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Philadelphia (Academic Press, New York and London, 1962) 1, A8.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    L. Reimer, “Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs- und Präparationsmethoden” 2nd Edn (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    L. Reimer, R. Christenhusz and J. Fischer, Naturwissenschaften 47 (1960) 464.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    L. Reimer and R. Christenhusz, Z. Angew. Phys. 14 (1962) 601.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    V. K. Zworkin, “Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope” (Wiley, New York, 1945).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    P. Favard and N. Carasso, J. Microscopy 97 (1973) 59.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    E. F. Burton, R. S. Sennet and E. G. Ellis, Nature 160 (1947) 565.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    K. Little, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Electron Microscopy, London, 1954 (Royal Microscopical Soc., London, 1956) p. 165.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    K. Little, Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Meeting of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group, Cambridge (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1971) p. 336.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    A. W. Levine, M. Kaplan and J. Fech, J. Polymer Sci. Chemistry 11 (1973) 311.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    R. M. Glaeser, J. Ultrastructural Res. 36 (1971) 466.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    H. Mahl and W. Weitsch, Naturwissenschaften 46 (1959) 487.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    T. Komoda and S. Hosoki, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Kyoto, 1966 (Maruzen, Tokyo) Vol 1 35.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    I. G. Stoyanova and T. P. Morozova, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 8 (1963) 161.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    I. G. Stoyanova and T. P. Martynenko, Works Laboratory 30 (1964) 1470.Google Scholar
  142. 42.
    S. M. Salih and V. E. Cosslett, to be published in Phil Mag. Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    H. Martin and J. Hirsch, Solid State Commun. 7 (1969) 279.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    G. V. Spivak, E. I. Rau, A. E. Lukianov, V. I. Petrov and M. V. Bicov, Proceedings of the 5th European Regional Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972) p. 492.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    H. Chanzy, E. Roch and R. Vuong, Kolloid Z.u.Z. Polymere 248 (1971) 1034.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Idem, J. Polymer Sci. Physics 11 (1973) 1859.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    A. E. Ennos, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (1953) 101.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Idem, ibid 5 (1954) 27.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    H. G. Heide, Lab. Invest. 14 (1965) 1134.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    J. Escaig and C. Sella, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Kyoto 1966 (Maruzen, Tokyo), Vol 1 177.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    H. G. Heide, Z. Angew. Physik. 15 (1963) 116.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    B. M. Siegel, Berichte der Bunsen-Gesellschaft 74 (1970) 1175.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Idem, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B261 (1971) 5.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    K. Anderson, J. Physics, E: Sci. Instrum. 1 (1968) 601.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38 (1947) 196.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    R. Gevers, Phil. Mag. 7 (1962) 1681.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    M. Von Ardenne, “Tabellen zur angewandten Physik” 2nd Edn (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1962) Vol. 1. Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    J. Sevely, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. B269 (1969) 249.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    V. Matricardi, G. Wray and D. F. Parsons, Micron 3 (1972) 526.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    M. J. Richardson and K. Thomas, Proceedings of the 5th European Regional Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972) p. 562.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    J. A. Rusnock and D. Hansen, J. Polymer Sci. A3 (1965) 647.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    C. W. Hock, ibid 5 (1967) 471.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    J. H. Manley, J. Ultrastructural Res. 29 (1969)383.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    F. Filisko, P. Novak and P. H. Geil, J. Ultrastructural Res. 38 (1972) 102.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    G. Dupuoy, F. Perrier and P. Verdier, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 262B (1966) 1063.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    H. M. Johnson and D. F. Parsons, J. Microscopy 90 (1969) 199.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    P. N. T. Unwin, Proc. Roy. Soc. A239 (1972) 327.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    P. W. Hawkes, Ed. “Image Processing and Computer Aided Design in Electron Optics” (Academic Press, London and New York, 1973).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    R. C. Valentine and N. G. Wrigley, Nature 203 (1964) 713.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    R. C. Valentine, in “Advances in Optics and Electron Microscopy”, edited by R. Barer and V. E. Cosslett, 1 (Academic Press, New York and London, 1966) p. 180.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    G. C. Farnell and R. B. Flint, J. Microscopy 97 (1973) 271.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    H. F. Premsela and W. Kuhl, Phil. Scient. and Anal. Equipment, Bulletin E.M. 30, 1968.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    G. T. Reynolds, in “Advances in Optics and Electron Microscopy”, edited by R. Barer and V. E. Cosslett, 2 (Academic Press, New York and London, 1968) p. 1.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    C. A. English and J. A. Venables, Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1972) p. 172.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    E. L. Thomas and S. Danyluk, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 4 (1971) 843.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    H. F. Premsela and A. Jore, Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Meeting of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group, Cambridge (Institute of Physics, London and Bristol, 1971), p. 38.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    E. Ruska, in “Advances in Optics and Electron Microscopy”, edited by R. Barer and V. E. Cosslett, 1 (Academic Press, New York and London, 1966) p. 115.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    H. P. Zingsheim and L. Bachmann, Kolloid Z.u.Z. Polymere 246 (1971) 561.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    D. M. Sadler and A. Keller, ibid 239 (1970) 641.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    D. C. Bassett and A. Keller, Phil. Mag. 6 (1961) 345.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. T. Grubb
    • 1
  1. 1.H. H. Wills Physics LaboratoryUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations