, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 155–160 | Cite as

Cost of territory establishment in hummingbirds

  • Christine Copenhaver
  • Paul W. Ewald


Time spent in territorial defense was measured during territory establishment for non-breeding Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) and Anna's (Calypte anna) hummingbirds. Newly established territory holders spent more time chasing intruders than neighboring established owners, which served as controls. This higher investment in defense by the new owners was due to 1) a longer time spent per each chase and 2) in some cases, a higher frequency of chases at the onset of territory ownership.


High Investment Territorial Defense Territory Ownership Territory Holder Established Owner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Copenhaver
    • 1
  • Paul W. Ewald
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, NJ-15University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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