Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 445–455 | Cite as

High-temperature wear of cemented tungsten carbide tools while machining particleboard and fiberboard

Review Article

Abstract

Published research on the wear processes of cemented tungsten carbide tools used for machining reconstituted wood products was reviewed, and the current state of knowledge in this area was evaluated. Underlying assumptions and conclusions regarding high-temperature oxidation/corrosion wear during machining were examined in view of known reaction kinetics of cemented tungsten carbide alloys in oxidative and corrosive environments at temperatures that may occur at the cutting edge. This examination indicated that some wear mechanisms other than high-temperature oxidation/corrosion are likely to be rate-controlling when machining reconstituted wood products such as particleboard and fiberboard.

Key words

Cemented tungsten carbide Machining Wear mechanism Particleboard Fiberboard 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brookes K (1979) World directory and handbook of hardmetals. Engineers' Digest, London, p 13Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kirbach E, Chow S (1976) Chemical wear of tungsten carbide cutting tools by Western redcedar. For Prod J 26(3):44–48Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bailey JA, Bayoumi A-M, Stewart JS (1983) Wear of cemented tungsten carbide tools in machining oak. Wear 85:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bayoumi A-E, Bailey JA, Stewart JS (1983) Comparison of the wear resistance of various grades of cemented carbides that may find application in wood machining. Wear 89:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bayoumi AE, Bailey JA (1984) An analytical and experimental investigation of the wear of cemented carbide cutting tools in the presence of dilute organic acids. Wear 94:29–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bayoumi AE, Bailey JA (1985) Comparison of the wear resistance of selected steels and cemented carbide cutting tool materials in machining wood. Wear 105:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murase Y (1984) Effect of tool materials on the corrosive wear of wood-cutting tools (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 30:47–54Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kirbach E, Bonac T (1982) Dulling of sawteeth tipped with a stellite and two cobalt-cemented tungsten carbides. For Prod J 32(9):42–45Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mohan GD, Klamecki BE (1981–1982) The susceptibility of woodcutting tools to corrosive wear. Wear 74:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fukuda H, Banshoya K, Murase Y (1992) Corrosive wear of woodcutting tools. I. Effects of tool materials on the corrosive wear of spur machine-bits (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38:764–770Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fukuda H, Banshoya K, Manatani T, Murase Y (1994) Corrosive wear of woodcutting tools. II. Effects of alloy compositions on the corrosive wear of cemented-carbide bits (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40:687–693Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Okumura S, Sugihara H, Ikeuchi K (1978) Wearing process of tungsten carbide tipped circular saw — interrupted cutting of particleboard with a single saw tooth (in Japanese). Bull Kyoto Univ For 50:201–208Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sugihara H, Okumura S, Haoka M, Ohi T, Makino Y (1979) Wear of tungsten carbide tipped circular saws in cutting particleboard: effect of carbide grain size on wear characteristics. Wood Sci Technol 13:283–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okumura S, Sugihara H, Yokoyama Y (1981) Wear of carbide tips in the turning of particelboard (in Japanese). J Soc Mat Sci 30:685–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stewart H, Shatynski S, Harbison B, Rabin B (1986) High temperature corrosion of tungsten carbide from machining medium-density fiberboard. Carbide Tool J 18(1):2–7Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bansyoya K, Fukuda H, Mantani T, Murase Y (1995) Wear of cemented carbide bits in machine boring of particleboard and MDF (in Japanese). Wood Ind 50:413–417Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parakash LJ (1995) Application of fine grained tungsten carbide based cemented carbides. Int J Refract Metals Hard Mater 13:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sheikh-Ahmad JY, Bailey JA (1999) The wear characteristics of some cemented tungsten carbides in machining particleboard. Wear 225–229:256–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chardin A (1973) Laboratory studies of temperature distribution on the face of a sawtooth. In: Dost A (ed) Proceedings of the 4th wood machining seminar. Forest Products Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, pp 67–84Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murase Y, Mori M (1983) On the surface temperature and wear of metal in repeated sliding contact with particleboard. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 29:220–226Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Inoue H (1985) Effect of cutting speed and rake angle on knife edge temperature during 90-0 cutting of wood (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 31:454–459Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Okumura S, Kuratsu H, Sugihara H (1987) Tool temperature in machine boring of wood (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 33:274–280Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Okumura S, Ishii T, Noguchi M (1993) Temperature of rubbing surfaces between a steel rod and wood and wood composites (in Japanese). Bull Kyoto Univ For 65:339–346Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sheikh-Ahmad J, Lemaster R, Stewart J, Bailey J (1996) Performance of carbide tooling in woodworking applications. Report to the carbide tooling research consortium of the wood machining and tooling research program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okushima S, Sugihara H, Umemoto M (1969) Temperature of cutter-cusp in wood cutting. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 15:197–202Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Okumura S, Sugihara H (1981) Temperature of sawtooth cusp in rubbing of the back face with wood (in Japanese). Bull Kyoto Univ For 53:241–247Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Okumura S, Okuda T, Sugihara H (1983) Temperature distribution on the side face of a saw tooth in interrupted cutting. I. Orthogonal cutting. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 29:123–130Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Okumura S, Sugihara H, Okuda T (1983) Temperature distribution on the side face of a saw tooth in interrupted cutting. II. Grooving (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 29:131–138Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hayashi K, Suzuki T (1983) Effect of cutting speed on tool wear in the peripheral milling of wood (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 29:36–42Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hayashi K, Oono M, Ito M (1986) Estimation of tool temperature in the neighborhood of the cutting edge in peripheral milling of wood (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 32:603–607Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Banshoya K, Fukui T (1987) Tool life in machine boring of wood and wood-based materials. VII. Effect of cutting heat on the tool wear of spur machine-bits (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 33:857–864Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tsutsumi S, Kato T, Hayashi K (1989) Visualization of temperature distribution near the cutting edge by means of a vacuum deposition of thermoscopic film on matching surface of a split tool. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 35:382–384Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Okushima S, Sugihara H (1972) Temperature distribution analysis of wood cutting tool with differential method (in Japanese). Bull Kyoto Univ For 43:328–334Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lowen EG, Shaw MC (1954) On the analysis of cutting-tool temperatures. Trans ASME 76:217–231Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Okumura S (1985) A theoretical approach to the cutting edge temperature in interrupted cutting of wood. Mem Coll Agric Kyoto Univ 127:29–36Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Csanady E (1993) Heat transfer and thermal loading in wood cutting tools. In: Proceedings of the 11th international wood machining seminar. Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Oslo, pp 486–494Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lewandowski C (1997) Determination of the temperature distribution in wood cutting tools. Masters thesis. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kieffer R, Köblbl F (1950) Z Anorg Chem 262:229; reported in: Schwarzkopf P, and Kieffer R (1953) Refractory hard metals. Macmillan, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dawihl W (1940) Chem Fabrik 13:133; reported in: Schwarzkopf P, Kieffer R (1953) Refractory hard metals, Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gumnitskii Y, Pelekh M, Givlyud N (1989) Special features of kinetics of high-temperature oxidation of VK8VK alloy. Soviet Mater Sci 24:458–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Larikov L, Tishkova T, Tyshkevich V, Shmatko O (1990) Study of the kinetics of oxidation of W-Co and WC-Co alloys. Protect Metals 25:524–526Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lofaj F, Kaganovskii Y (1995) Kinetics of WC-Co oxidation accompanied by swelling. J Mater Sci 30:1811–1817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reid A, Stewart H, Rapp R (1991) High-temperature reactions of tungsten carbide-cobalt tool material with MDF. For Prod J 41(11/12):12–18Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Basu SN, Sarin VK (1996) Oxidation behavior of WC-Co. Mater Sci Eng A209:206–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bhaumik S, Balasubramanian R, Upadhyaya G, Vaidya M (1992) Oxidation behaviour of hard and hard binder phase modified WC-10Co cemented carbides. J Mater Sci Lett 11:1457–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oakes J (1987) Effect of Cr and Mo additions to the binder phase of cemented carbides used for rod mill rolls. Metal Powder Rep 42:492–499Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Voitovich VB, Sverdel VV, Voitovich RF, Golovko EI (1996) Oxidation of WC-Co, WC-Ni and WC-Co-Ni hard metals in the temperature range 500–800°C. Int J Refract Hard Mater 14:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Padilla M, Rapp R, Stewart H (1991) High temperature oxidation of tungsten carbide-cobalt composites in the presence of MDF. For Prod J 41(10):31–34Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Porankiewicz B (1992) Does chemical corrosion of carbide cutting edges occur when milling melamine coated particle board. Presented at the seminar of the Faculty of Wood Technology, Agriculture University of Pozan, Poland. Cited in Dziembaj et al52 Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Porankiewicz B, Ziomek-Moroz M, Wagner K (1995) Study of wearing process of cemented carbide cutting edge when milling secondary wood products. In: Proceedings of the 12th international wood machining seminar, Kyoto University, Japan, pp 272–281Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Porankiewicz B, Wagner K (1995) The study of high temperature corrosion of cemented carbide cutting edge after coated particle board processing using advanced surface analyzing methods. In: Proceedings of the 13th international wood machining seminar, Vancouver, Canada, pp 651–657Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dziembaj R, Lachman O, Porankiewicz B (1993) Chemical corrosion of carbide cutting edge when milling melamine coated particle board. In: Proceedings of the 11th international wood machining seminar, Norwegian Institute of Technology, pp 137–145Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gallagher PK (1991) Thermoanalytical methods. In: Cahn RW, Haasen P, Kramer EJ (eds) Materials science and technology: a comprehensive treatment, Vol 2A:pt. I, VCH, New York, p 492Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salje E (1988) Milling of particleboard with high hard cutting materials. In: Lemaster R (ed) Proceedings of the 9th international wood machining seminar, Forest Products Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, pp 211–228Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Brown HP, Panshin AJ, Forsaith GC (1952) Textbook of wood technology. McGraw Hill, New York, p 755Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beal FC, Eickner HW (1968) Thermal degradation of wood components: a review of the literature. FPL-130. USDA Forest Service. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goldstein J, Newbury D, Echlin P, Joy D, Fiori C, Lifshin E (1984) Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eberhart JP (1991) Structural and chemical analysis of materials. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Porankiewicz B (1997) Variation in composition of micrograin cemented carbide and its impact on cutting edge wear during particleboard machining. In: Proceedings of the 13th international wood Machining Seminar, Vancouver, Canada, pp 791–799Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kubaschewski O, Hopkins B (1962) Oxidation of metals and alloys, Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stewart H (1987) Borided tungsten carbide reduces tool wear during machining of MDF. For Prod J 37(7/8):35–38Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mueller HJ (1993) Cutting performance of boron implanted cemented carbide dental burs. Microstruct Sci 20:485–498.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kang S, Fromm E (1981) Reactions of molybdenum and tungsten carbides with oxygen at high temperatures. Met Trans 12A:1993–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Young RS (1948) Cobalt. Reinhold, New York, pp 57–65Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    American Society of Metals (1985) Hardness testing. In: Metals handbook, vol 9. ASM, Metals Park, OH, USA, pp 69–113Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rabinowics E (1965) Friction and wear of materials. Wiley, New York, p 167Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Larsen-Basse J, Koyanagi ET (1979) Abrasion of WC-Co alloys by quartz. J Lub Technol 101:208–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Larsen-Basse J, Devani N (1986) Binder extrusion as a controlling mechanism in abrasion of WC-Co cemented carbides. In: Almond E, Brooks C, Warren R (eds) Science of hard metals. Adam Higler, Boston, pp 883–895Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jia K, Fischer TE (1996) Abrasion resistance of nanostructured and conventional cemented carbides. Wear 200:206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Porankiewicz B, Gronlund A (1991) Tool wear — influencing factors. In: Lemaster R (ed) Proceedings of the 10th international wood machining seminar, Forest Products Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, pp 220–229Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Huber H (1985) Tool wear influences by the contents of particleboard. In: Lemaster R (ed) Proceedings of the 8th international wood machining seminar, Forest Products Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, pp 72–85Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Exner HE, Gurland J (1970) A review of parameters influencing some mechanical properties of tungsten carbide-cobalt alloys. Powder Metal 13:13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial and Manufacturing EngineeringWichita State UniversityWichitaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations