Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 56–61 | Cite as

Analysis of chemical structure of wood charcoal by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  • Koei Nishimiya
  • Toshimitsu Hata
  • Yuji Imamura
  • Shigehisa Ishihara
Original Article


Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffractometry to investigate the changes of chemical structures during the carbonization process. From the infrared spectra, the carbon double bonds and aromatic rings were seen to form at a carbonization temperature of about 600°C. From the XPS spectra, the ratio of aromatic carbons increased in the temperature range 800–1000°C and over 1800°C. The condensation of aromatic rings proceeded as carbonization progressed. The drastic reduction of electrical resistivity of charcoals was observed in almost the same temperature range. It was found that the condensation of aromatic rings had some relation to the decline in electrical resistivity. Wood charcoal carbonized at 1800°C was partly graphitized, a finding supported by the results of X-ray diffraction and XPS. The functional groups containing oxygen diminished with the increase in carbonization temperature.

Key words

Wood charcoal Chemical structure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray Carbonization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ishihara S, Kawai S (1989) Carbon-material overlaid particleboard I (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 35:234–242Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ishihara S, Ide I, Nagasawa C, Kawai S (1993) Fire endurance and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of carbon-based composites (in Japanese). J Soc Mat Sci Jpn 42:147–152Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ide I, Ishihara S, Kawai S, Yoshida Y, Nakaji M, Takamatsu A (1992) Fire-resistant carbon-board materials II (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38:777–785Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ide I, Ishihara S, Higuchi N, Nishikawa M (1994) Carbon-based composites from bamboo charcoal and its applications (in Japanese). J Soc Mat Sci Jpn 43:152–157Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Furutsuka T, Ishihara S (1996) Development of environmental control and purification material by the composites from charcoal and metal oxide (in Japanese). In: Abstracts of 46th Annual Meeting of the Japan Wood Research Society, Kumamoto, April 3–5, p 477Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pulido LL, Ishihara S, Kajimoto T, Ide I (1996) Development of environmental protection wood charcoal composites from toxic heavy metal. II. In: Abstracts of 46th Annual Meeting of the Japan Wood Research Society, Kumamoto, April 3–5, p 476Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yatagai M, Ito R, Ohira T, Oba K (1995) Effect of charcoal on purification of wastewater. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 41:425–432Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishihara S (1996) Recent trend of advanced carbon material from wood charcoals (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 42:717–724Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nishimiya K, Hata T, Ishihara S (1994) Mechanism and clarification of electrical conduction through wood charcoal. Wood Res 82:33–35Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suzuki T, Nishizawa S (1990) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (in Japanese). Tanso 141:45–55Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Darmstadt H, Roy C, Kailiaguine S (1994) ESCA characterization of commercial carbon blacks and of carbon blacks from vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. Carbon 32:1399–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Desimoni E, Casella GI, Morone A, Salvi AM (1990) XPS determination of oxygen-containing functional groups on carbon-fibre surfaces and the cleaning of these surfaces. Surface Interface Anal 15:627–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bacon R, Tang MM (1964) Carbonization of cellulose fibres. I. Carbon 2:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Owen NL, Thomas DW (1989) Infrared studies of hard and soft woods. Appl Spectrosc 43:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ide I (1995) Properties of thermally-conversed wood and its applications (in Japanese). Doctoral thesis, Kyoto University, pp 8–62Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Krevelen DW (1961) Coal. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 111–126Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abe F, Kishimoto S, Unrinin G (1960) Studies on charcoal XI (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 6:188–193Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kishimoto S, Kitsuta K (1969) Functional group and free radical on inner surface of charcoal (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 15:208–213Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fukuda Y (1995) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (in Japanese). In: Onishi T, Horiike Y, Yoshihara K (ed) Kotai hyoumen bunseki. I. Kodansya Scientific, Tokyo pp 68–69Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Proctor A, Sherwood PMA (1982) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of carbon fibre surfaces. I. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 27:39–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fukuda M, Mizogami S, Matsuoka R, Nogami K, Yoshino K (1989) Flexible carbonaceous and graphitized films by pyrolytic chemical-vapor-deposition method from hydrocarbons containing oxygen atoms. J Appl Phys 66:881–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tanaka K (1994) Electron theory (in Japanese). Kyoritsu, Tokyo pp 49–73Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koei Nishimiya
    • 1
  • Toshimitsu Hata
    • 1
  • Yuji Imamura
    • 1
  • Shigehisa Ishihara
    • 1
  1. 1.Wood Research InstituteKyoto UniversityUji, Kyoto 611Japan

Personalised recommendations