Effects of smoking and drinking on excretion of hippuric acid among toluene-exposed workers

  • Osamu Inoue
  • Kazunori Seiji
  • Takao Watanabe
  • Haruo Nakatsuka
  • Chui Jin
  • Shi-Jie Liu
  • Masayuki Ikeda
Original articles


In order to investigate possible effects of smoking and drinking on the metabolism of toluence in occupational settings, 206 toluene-exposed men (mean age: 31.4 years) in shoemaking, painting, or surface-coating workshops together with 246 nonexposed control men (36.8 years) were studied for the time-weighted average intensities of exposure to toluene, hippuric acid concentration in shift-end urine samples, and the two social habits of smoking and drinking. The mean daily consumptions of cigarettes and ethanol were about 20 pieces and 10 g among smokers and drinkers, respectively. The geometric mean toluene concentration among the exposed subjects was about 20 ppm, with a maximum of 521 ppm. Regression analysis after classification of the subjects by smoking and drinking clearly demonstrated that the two social habits, when combined, markedly reduce the hippuric acid level in the urine of workers exposed to was a significant association between smoking and drinking habits, which hindered separate evaluation of the effects of the two habits on toluene metabolism. Comparison of the present results with the findings reported in the literature, however, suggested that the observed effects may be attributable to smoking rather than to drinking habits.

Key words

Biological monitoring Drinking Hippuric acid Smoking Toluene Urinalysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osamu Inoue
    • 1
  • Kazunori Seiji
    • 1
  • Takao Watanabe
    • 2
  • Haruo Nakatsuka
    • 3
  • Chui Jin
    • 4
  • Shi-Jie Liu
    • 5
  • Masayuki Ikeda
    • 6
  1. 1.Tohoku Rosai HospitalSendaiJapan
  2. 2.Miyagi University of EducationSendaiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesTohoku University School of MedicineSendaiJapan
  4. 4.Chinese Academy of Preventive MedicineInstitute of Occupational MedicineBeijingChina
  5. 5.Beijing Medical University School of Public HealthBeijingChina
  6. 6.Department of Public HealthKyoto University Faculty of MedicineKyotoJapan

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