Advertisement

Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 274, Issue 1–2, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Suppressor cell decrease in alopecia areata

  • Glenn N. Ledesma
  • Kenneth K. York
Original Contributions

Summary

There is considerable evidence to suggest that autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. Since it is known that T cells regulate the immune system, a study was undertaken to measure T helper (OKT-4) and T suppressor (OKT-8) cells in the peripheral blood of patients with alopecia areata (both active and stable) and in controls. Total T cells, B cells, immunoglobulins, and autoantibodies were also measured. There was a highly significant decrease in the T-suppressor cell population of patients with alopecia areata (P>0.001). Two of ten patients had microsomal antibodies and three of ten had elevated IgE levels. Other parameters were not significantly different. The decrease in suppressor cells suggests an impairment of the prime negative regulator of the immune system, with loss of tolerance and resultant autoimmunity.

Key words

Alopecia areata T suppressor Monoclonal antibodies Autoimmunity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Muller SA, Winkelmann RK (1963) Alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 88:290–297Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blizzard RM, Chee D, Davis W (1967) The incidence of adrenal and other antibodies in the sera of patients with idiopathic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease). Clin Exp Immunol 2:19–30Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cunliffe WJ, Hall R, Newell DJ, Stevenson CJ (1968) Vitiligo, thyroid disease and autoimmunity. Br J Dermatol 80:135–139Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cunliffe WJ, Hall R, Stevenson CJ, Weightman D (1969) Alopecia areata, thyroid disease and autoimmunity. Br J Dermatol 81:877–881Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stankler L, Bewsher PD (1972) Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, endocrine deficiency and alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 86:238–245Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bottazzo GF, Florin-Christensen A, Doniach D (1974) Islet-cell antibodies in diabetes mellitus with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiencies. Lancet 2:1279–1283Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker WG, Buckley RH (1975) Alopecia areata, hypogammaglobulinemia, Concanavalin A (Con A) hyporesponsiveness, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Clin Res 25:75 AGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guin JD (1980) Alopecia areata. J Indiana State Med Assoc 73:596, 599Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    du Vivier A, Munro DD (1975) Alopecia areata, autoimmunity, and Down's syndrome. Br Med J 1:191–192Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carter DM, Jegasothy BV (1976) Alopecia areata and Down syndrome. Arch Dermatol 112:1397–1399Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brown AC, Olkowski ZL, McLaren JR, Kutner MH (1977) Alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with Down's syndrome. Arch Dermatol 113:1296Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kern F, Hoffman WH, Hambrick GW, Blizzard RM (1973) Alopecia areata. Immunologic studies and treatment with prednisone. Arch Dermatol 107:407–412Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Main RA, Robbie RB, Gray ES, Donald D, Horne CHW (1975) Smooth muscle antibodies and alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 92:389–393Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Betterle C, Peserico A, Del Prete G, Trisotto A (1975) Autoantibodies in alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 111:927Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cochran REI, Thomson J, Mac Sween RNM (1976) An auto-antibody profile in alopecia totalis and diffuse alopecia. Br J Dermatol 95:61–65Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muller HK, Rook AJ, Kubba R (1980) Immunohistology and autoantibody studies in alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 102:609–610Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown AC, Olkowski ZL, McLaren JR (1977) Thymus lymphocytes of the peripheral blood in patients with alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 113:688Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giannetti A, DiSilverio A, Castellazzi AM, Maccario R (1978) Evidence for defective T-cell function in patients with alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol 98:361Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nunzi E, Hamerlinck F, Cormane RH (1980) Immunopathological studies on alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res 269:1–11Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herzer P, Czarnetzki BM, Holzmann H, Lemmel EM (1979) Immunological studies in patients with atopecia areata. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 58:212–218Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hordinsky-Kramarczuk D, Nelson DL, Hallgren H, Filipovich AH (1981) Lymphocyte subset abnormalities in alopecia areata. J Invest Dermatol 76:326Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bystryn JC, Orentreich N, Stengel F (1979) Direct immunofluorescence studies in alopecia areata and male pattern alopecia. J Invest Dermatol 73:317–320Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klaber MR, Munro DD (1978) Alopecia areata. Immunofluorescence and other studies. Br J Dermatol 99:383–386Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Igarashi R, Takeuchi S, Sato Y (1980) Immunofluorescent studies of complement C3 in the hair follicles of normal scalp and of scalp affected by alopecia areata. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 60:33–37Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D'Ovidio R, Vena A, Angelini G (1981) Cell-mediated immunity in alopecia areata. Arch Dermotol Res 271:265–273Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lever WF, Schaumburg-Lever G (1975) Histopathology of the skin, 5th edn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 184–185Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Happle R (1980) Antigenic competition as a therapeutic concept for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol Res 267:109–114Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dillaba CJ, Rothman S (1952) Therapeutic experiments in alopecia areata with orally administered cortisone. JAMA 150:546–550Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Frentz G, Eriksen K (1977) Treatment of alopecia areata with DNCG — an immunostimulation? Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 57:370–371Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Happle R, Echternacht K (1977) Induction of hair growth in alopecia areata with DNCB. Lancet Vol. 2:1002–1003Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thorsby E, Bratlie A (1970) A rapid method for preparation of pure lymphocyte suspensions. In: Terasaki P (ed) Histocompatibility testing. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 655–656Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mendes NF, Tolnai MEA, Silveira NPA, Gilbertsen RB, Metzgar RS (1973) Technical aspects of the rosette tests used to detect human complement receptor (B) and sheep erythrocyte-binding (T) lymphocytes. J Immunol 111:860–867Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Preud'homme JL, Labaume S (1975) Immunofluorescent staining of human lymphocytes for the detection of surface immunoglobulins. Ann NY Acad Sci 254:254–261Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kung PC, Goldstein G, Reinherz EL, Schlossman SF (1979) Monoclonal antibodies defining distinctive human T-cell surface antigens. Science 206:347–349Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mancini G, Carbonara AO, Heremans JF (1965) Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry 2:235–254Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Evans RL, Lazarus H, Penta AC, Schlossman SF (1978) Two functionally distinct subpopulation of human T cells that collaborate in the generation of cytotoxic cells responsible for cell-mediated lympholysis. J Immunol 120:1423–1428Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moretta L, Webb SR, Grossi CE, Lydyard PM, Cooper MD (1977) Functional analysis of two human T-cell subpopulations Help and suppression of B-cell responses by T cells bearing receptors for IgM or IgG. J Exp Med 146:184–200Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reinherz EL, Rubenstein A, Geha R, Strelkauskas AJ, Rosen FS, Schlossman SF (1979) Abnormalities of immunoregulatory T cells in disorders of immune function. N Engl J Med 301:1018–1022Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Blaese RM (1978) T suppressor cells as mediators of “infectious agammaglobulinemia” of birds. Ann Intern Med 88:229–231Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reinherz EL, Geha R, Wohl ME, Morimoto C, Rosen FS, Schlossman SF (1981) Immunodeficiency associated with Loss of T4+ inducer T-cell function. N Engl J Med 304:811–816Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rubenstein A, Sicklick M, Mehra V, Rosen FS, Levey RH (1981) Antihelper T-cell autoantibody in acquired agammaglobulinemia. J Clin Invest 67:42–50Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Krakauer RS, Waldmann TA, Strober W (1976) Loss of suppressor T cells in adult NZB/NZW mice. J Exp Med 144:662–673Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ipp MM, Gelfand EW (1976) Antibody deficiency and alopecia. J Pediatr 89:728–731Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gupta S, Good RA (1977) Subpopulations of human T-lymphocytes. Glin Exp Immunol 30:222–228Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Strelkauskas AJ, Callery RT, McDowell J, Borel Y, Schlossman SF (1978) Direct evidence for loss of human suppressor cells during active autoimmune disease. Immunol 75:5150–5154Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bigley NJ, Rossio JL, Smith RA, Schaffer CF (1981) Immunologic fundamentals, 2nd edn. Year Book, Chicago, pp 200–216Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ikeda T (1965) A new classification of alopecia areata. Dermatologica 131:421–445Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Penders AJM (1968) Alopecia areata and atopy. Dermatologica 136:395–399Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenn N. Ledesma
    • 1
  • Kenneth K. York
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of LaboratoriesThe Long Island College HospitalNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations