Causality in medicine: Towards a theory and terminology
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One of the cornerstones of modern medicine is the search for what causes diseases to develop. A conception of multifactorial disease causes has emerged over the years. Theories of disease causation, however, have not quite been developed in accordance with this view. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a fundamental explication of aspects of causation relevant for discussing causes of disease.
The first part of the analysis will discuss discrimination between singular and general causality. Singular causality, as in the specific patient, is a relation between a concrete sequence of causally linked events. General causation, e.g. as in disease etiology, means various categories of causal relations between event types. The paper introduces the concept of a reference case serving as a source for causal inference, reaching beyond the concept of general causality.
The second part of the analysis provides exemplification of a theory of causation suitable for discussing singular causation. The chain of events that induce a disease state can be identified as effective causal complexes, each complex composed of nonredundant components, which separately contribute to the effect of the complex, without the individual component being necessary or sufficient in itself to produce the effect. In the third part of the analysis the theory is elaborated further. Causes, defined as nonredundant components, can furthermore be differentiated according to their avoidability, according to theories about human error or by the potential of eradication.
Multifactorial models of disease creates a need for systematic approaches to causal factors. The paper proposes a taxonomical terminology that serves this purpose.
Key wordscausal reasoning causality disease etiology human error philosophy of medicine
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