, Volume 30, Issue 3–4, pp 407–428 | Cite as

Fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning

In memory of Grigore Moisil
  • L. A. Zadeh


The term fuzzy logic is used in this paper to describe an imprecise logical system, FL, in which the truth-values are fuzzy subsets of the unit interval with linguistic labels such as true, false, not true, very true, quite true, not very true and not very false, etc. The truth-value set, ℐ, of FL is assumed to be generated by a context-free grammar, with a semantic rule providing a means of computing the meaning of each linguistic truth-value in ℐ as a fuzzy subset of [0, 1].

Since ℐ is not closed under the operations of negation, conjunction, disjunction and implication, the result of an operation on truth-values in ℐ requires, in general, a linguistic approximation by a truth-value in ℐ. As a consequence, the truth tables and the rules of inference in fuzzy logic are (i) inexact and (ii) dependent on the meaning associated with the primary truth-value true as well as the modifiers very, quite, more or less, etc.

Approximate reasoning is viewed as a process of approximate solution of a system of relational assignment equations. This process is formulated as a compositional rule of inference which subsumes modus ponens as a special case. A characteristic feature of approximate reasoning is the fuzziness and nonuniqueness of consequents of fuzzy premisses. Simple examples of approximate reasoning are: (a) Most men are vain; Socrates is a man; therefore, it is very likely that Socrates is vain. (b) x is small; x and y are approximately equal; therefore y is more or less small, where italicized words are labels of fuzzy sets.


Approximate Solution Characteristic Feature Fuzzy Logic Unit Interval Truth Table 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Zadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaBerkeley

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