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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 76, Issue 3–4, pp 407–448 | Cite as

Assessment of critical loads and their exceedance on Dutch forests using a multi-layer steady-state model

  • W. De Vries
  • J. Kros
  • J. C. H. Voogd
Article

Abstract

Critical acid loads for Dutch forests were derived using a multi-layer steady-state model that includes canopy interactions, nutrient cycling, mineral weathering and N transformations. Values were calculated for combinations of 12 tree species and 23 soil types for a 10×10 km grid. Critical acid loads thus derived increased with decreasing soil depth. Nearly 90% of the values varied approximately between 1500 and 4000 molc ha−1 yr−1 at 10 cm soil depth and between 750 and 2000 molc ha−1 yr−1 at the bottom of the rootzone. Separate critical loads calculated for N and S at the bottom of the rootzone varied between approximately 300 and 1000 molc ha−1 yr−1 for N and between 150 and 1250 molc ha−1 yr−1 for S. Using deposition data of 1990, a median reduction of the deposition by approximately 75% was calculated to achieve the critical loads at the bottom of the rootzone. The overall uncertainty in this value was estimated to be about 10%, although it can be much larger for specific soil types such as clay and peat soils. For N a larger reduction deposition percentage was calculated than for S, especially for coniferous forests with a high present N input.

Keywords

Clay Tree Species Soil Type Soil Depth Weathering 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. De Vries
    • 1
  • J. Kros
    • 1
  • J. C. H. Voogd
    • 1
  1. 1.DLO Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water ResearchAC WageningenThe Netherlands

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