Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 71, Issue 3–4, pp 331–345

Response of eight tropical plants to enhanced ammonia deposition under field conditions prevalent with SO2 and NH3

  • M. V. Rao
  • S. Khujneri
  • P. S. Dubey
  • D. M. Kumawat


The impact of SO2 on the deposition of ammonia and the response of eight tropical tree species to excess deposition of ammonia was investigated. This was achieved by studying physiological aspects like total sugars, protein, nitrate reductace (NR) activity, organic/inorganic nitrogen ratio, specific leaf area and foliar injury in plants growing under field conditions prevalent with SO2 and NH3.

Analysis of water soluble substances present on foliar surfaces of the trees indicated enhanced NH4+ deposition and thereby result in enhanced foliar protein contents. Though the enhanced nitrogen was almost the same in different plants, the plants exhibited differential metabolic disturbances. Critical analysis of the results indicated three distinct types of plant response. Plants like Azadirachta indica, Acacia auriculiformis and Bambusa arundinaceae maintained enhanced total sugars and NR activity and incorporated excess NH4+ into proteins, thus enabling the plant to compensate/alleviate SO2 induced injury. Ficus benghalensis and Ficus religiosa maintained unaltered total sugars and NR activity and could partly incorporate NH4+ into proteins, thus modifying the SO2 impact to some extent. Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus rostrata and Mangifera indica could not incorporate the excess NH4+, mainly due to declined total sugars. The results indicate the ability of a plant to undergo species specific metabolic changes in order to cope with the excess nitrogen deposition, which may ultimately result in increasing or decreasing tolerance to SO2.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, S. E.: 1974, in Chemical Analysis Of Biological Materials. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, S. E., Grimshaw, H. M., Parkinson, N., Quarmby, C., and Roberts, J. D.: 1976, in Methods In Plant Ecology S. D. Chapman, Halsted Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association: 1977, In Methods Of Air Sampling And Analysis, M. Katz (ed.), II edition, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  4. Borland, A. M. and Lea, P. L.: 1991, Agriculture Ecosystems And Environment 33, 281.Google Scholar
  5. Dhondiyal, S.: 1991, M. Phil Thesis, Vikram University, Ujjain, India.Google Scholar
  6. Dolske, D. A.: 1988, Environmental Pollution 53, 1.Google Scholar
  7. Dubey, P. S.: 1986, in Procedure Manual: All India Coordinated Programme On Air Pollution And Plants. Dept. of Environment, Govt. of India, India.Google Scholar
  8. Duncan, S. B.: 1955, Biometrics 55, 1.Google Scholar
  9. Ferm, A., Hytonen, J., Lahdesmaki, P., Pietilainen, P., and Patila, A.: 1990, in Acidification In Finland P. Kauppi, P. Anttibi and K. Ken Hanies (eds.), Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 635.Google Scholar
  10. Khujneri, S.: 1991, M. Phil Thesis, Vikram University, Ujjain, India.Google Scholar
  11. Lowry, O. H., Rosenbrough, N. J., Frar, F. L., and Randall, R. J.: 1951, J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265.Google Scholar
  12. Malhotra, S. S. and Sarkar, S. K.: 1979, Physiol. Plant 47, 223.Google Scholar
  13. Mc Donald, M. S.: 1978, Anal. Biochem. 121, 54.Google Scholar
  14. Mc Leod, A. R.: 1988, Phytopathology 78, 88.Google Scholar
  15. Mc Leod, A. R., Holland, M. R., Shaw, P. J. A., Sutherland, P. M., Darrall, N. M., and Skeffington, R. A.: 1991, Nature 347, 277.Google Scholar
  16. Mehrer, I. and Mohr, H.: 1989, Physiol. Plant. 77, 545.Google Scholar
  17. Nihlgard, B.: 1985, Ambio 14, 1.Google Scholar
  18. Pietila, M., Lahdesmaki, P., Pietilainen, P., Ferm, A., Hytonen, J., and Patila, A.: 1991, Environmental Pollution 72, 103.Google Scholar
  19. Purirch, G. S. and Borker, A. V.: 1967, Plant Physiol. 42, 1229.Google Scholar
  20. Rao, M. V. and Dubey, P. S.: 1988, Asian Environ. 3, 3.Google Scholar
  21. Rao, M. V. and Dubey, P. S.: 1990a, Environmental Pollution 64, 55.Google Scholar
  22. Rao, M. V. and Dubey, P. S.: 1990b, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 51, 297.Google Scholar
  23. Rao, M. V. and Dubey, R. S.: 1992. The Science Of The Total Environment 126, 1.Google Scholar
  24. Roelofs, J. G. M., Kempers, A. J., Houdijk, A. L. F. M., and Jansen, J.: 1985, Plant and Soil 84, 45.Google Scholar
  25. Srivastava, R. C. and Mathur, S. N.: 1980, Indian J. Experimental Biology 18, 300.Google Scholar
  26. Trebst, A. and Avron, M.: 1977, In Encyclopedia Of Plant Physiology, New Series, Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 1.Google Scholar
  27. Van Breemen, N., Burrough, P. A., Velthorst, E. J., van Dobben, H. F., de Wit, T., Ridder, T. B., and Reynders, H. F. R.: 1982, Nature 299, 548.Google Scholar
  28. Van der Eerden, L. J.: 1982, Agric. Environ. 7, 223.Google Scholar
  29. Van der Eerden, L. J., Dueck, T. A., Elderson, J., Van Dobben, H. V., Berdowski, J. J., Latuhihin, M., and Prins, A. H.: 1990, Research Report 90/06, Research Institute For Plant Protection, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  30. Van Dijk, H. F. G. and Roelofs, J. G.M.: 1988, Physiol. Plant. 73, 494.Google Scholar
  31. Van Hove, L. W. A., Adema, E. H., Vredenberg, W. J., and Pieters, G. A.: 1989, Atmos. Environ. 23, 1479.Google Scholar
  32. Zedler, B., Piarre, R., and Rothe, G. M.: 1986, Environmental Pollution 40, 193.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. V. Rao
    • 1
  • S. Khujneri
    • 1
  • P. S. Dubey
    • 1
  • D. M. Kumawat
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Studies in BotanyVikram UniversityUjjainIndia
  2. 2.Department of Horticultural ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations