Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 85, Issue 3, pp 1771–1776 | Cite as

Chemical input/output balance for a moderately polluted forest catchment in southern Poland

  • M. Niklińska
  • M. Maryański
  • G. Szarek
  • R. Laskowski
Part VI Ecosystem Experiments — Case Studies


A four-year study in a forest catchment exposed to a moderate level of anthropogenic pollution indicated heavy accumulation of hydrogen (H+), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the ecosystem and phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and cadmium (Cd) to a lesser extent. Nitrogen, which is also accumulated, is leached mainly as NO3, even though the input is dominated by NH4+. Magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) are leached from the catchment, presumably due to intensive weathering processes in deeper layers of mineral soil. Chloride ion (Cl) is also lost from the ecosystem. The output of sulphate (SO42−) with stream water exceeds its input only slightly. Although it appears that the catchment as a whole has a large buffering capacity (average stream water pH=7.43, rainfall pH=4.33), the upper biologically active soil layers are probably more susceptible to acidification and pollution. With constant accumulation of H+ and heavy metal ions this may lead to degradation of forest health.

Key words

balance catchment nutrients pollutants bulk precipitation throughfall stream water 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Niklińska
    • 1
  • M. Maryański
    • 1
  • G. Szarek
    • 2
  • R. Laskowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecosystem StudiesJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  2. 2.Institute of BotanyPolish Academy of SciencesKrakówPoland

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