Natural acidification of lakes and rivers in Japan: The ecosystem of Lake Usoriko (ph 3.4–3.8)
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Most of the acid lakes and rivers in Japan have been influenced by acid waters of volcanic origin. Acidophilic and acidotolerant organisms are observed in these natural acid lakes and rivers, each of which has its own ecosystem and history. Lake Usoriko (pH 3.4–3.8) is a lake which.has been acidified by strongly acid water containing sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. The ecosystem of Lake Usoriko consists of aquatic vascular plants, aquatic bryophytes (Drepanocladus fluitans, etc.), algae, fish (Tribolodon hakonensis), insects, Zooplankton, fungi and bacteria. The paleosediment distributed along Lake Usoriko's northern shore is partly silicified and it contains fossils of a moss (Drepanocladus fluitans) and diatoms such as Pinnularia braunii var. amphicephala which are also distributed in the present lake. 14C dating of the specimens in the paleosediment, shoots of D. fluitans and the wood and cones of Picea glehnii gave values in the range 11500–34000y B.P. This record shows how long Lake Usoriko has been an acid lake.
KeywordsJapan Sulfuric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Vascular Plant Acid Water
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