Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 85, Issue 2, pp 475–480 | Cite as

Critical limits of acidification to invertebrates in different regions of Europe

  • Gunnar G. Raddum
  • Brit L. Skjelkvåle
Part I Lake Acidification and its Effects


The International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes (ICP-Water) started in 1987. The main aim of the programme is to establish degree and geographical extent of acidification of surface waters and evaluate dose/response relationships to aquatic biota attributable to acidic deposition. The sample frequency in each locality is from a few — to a large number every year. Samples of invertebrates are taken from 108 localities. One time samples as well as regularly seasonal samples over years exist in the database. The acidity score (Raddum index) is determined for the different sites and regions, and compared with the corresponding chemical data. The analysis show a strong relationship between water quality and fauna. Sensitive species/taxa are associated with high ANC and pH, while tolerant species/taxa are associated with low pH and ANC. The diversity of the fauna in less acidified areas varies from region to region depending on the native water quality and the adaptions of the fauna. In areas with strongly oligotrophic water, low in ionic strength, the sensitive fauna tolerate lower ANC and pH than in areas with originally high ionic strength and high pH. The critical load of ANC, 20 μeq/1, developed for the oligotrophic water in Norway, should therefore be increased in watersheds with high ionic strength. In Central Europe the data indicate a critical level of ANC ≈50 μeq/1.

Key words

Acidification Freshwater Invertebrates Critical load Adaptations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Engblom, E. and P., Lingdell, 1984.: Rep. Inst. Freshw. Res., Drottningholm 61: 60–69.Google Scholar
  2. Fjellheim, A. and G.G., Raddum 1990. The Science of the Total Environment, 96: 57–66.Google Scholar
  3. Herrmann, J. E. Degerman, A. Gerhardt, C. Johansson, P.E. Lingdell and I.P., Muniz. 1993, Ambio, 22, 298–307.Google Scholar
  4. Hovind, H. 1992. NIVA-Report no: 2784,70 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Illies, J. 1978. Limnofauna Europaea. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, 532 pp. Ambio 22: 298–307.Google Scholar
  6. Iversen, T., J. Saftbones, H. Sandnes, A. Eliassen, and Ø. Hov 1985. EMRPMSC-W Report 2/89.Google Scholar
  7. Johannessen, T. 1995 (This vol.)Google Scholar
  8. Lien, L., G.G., Raddum, and A., Fjellheim. 1992. Acid Rain Research Report no. 21. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo. 36 pp.Google Scholar
  9. NIVA 1987. Programme Manual, ICP-Water, 23 pp.Google Scholar
  10. NIVA 1989. The three year report. Summary and results 1987–1989, 205Google Scholar
  11. Matthias, U. 1983. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl., 65, 407–483.Google Scholar
  12. Raddum, G.G. 1979. IR 45/79, SNSF-Project, Oslo-Ås, Norway. 58pp.Google Scholar
  13. Raddum, G.G. and Fjellheim A., and T., Hesthagen 1988. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 23:2291–2297.Google Scholar
  14. Raddum, G.G. 1993. NIVA-Report no. 9301.Google Scholar
  15. Skjelkvåle, B.L., A.D. Newell, G.G. Raddum, M. Johannessen, H. Hovind, T. Tjomsland, and B.M. Wathne 1994. NIVA-Report no 86001, 135 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunnar G. Raddum
    • 1
  • Brit L. Skjelkvåle
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Zoology, Department of Animal EcologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Inst. for Water ResearchOslo

Personalised recommendations