Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 63, Issue 3–4, pp 211–235 | Cite as

Estimation of S and NOx-N deposition budgets for the United States and Canada

  • Jack D. Shannon
  • Douglas L. Sisterson
Article

Abstract

Extensive wet deposition monitoring data, along with much sparser dry deposition monitoring data and isolated field characterizations of droplet deposition, are used to produce an annual deposition budget for S and NOx-N for each contiguous U.S. state and Canadian province. The contribution to wet deposition from natural sources is estimated, and wet deposition is adjusted accordingly, to focus the analysis on deposition associated with anthropogenic emissions. The budgets, which are appropriate for 1985–1987, include adjustments for increased local wet and dry deposition near point sources and urban areas, which are generally avoided in selecting monitoring sites. When aggregated over the United States and Canada, estimated wet, dry, and droplet deposition account for about 30, 29, and 4% of anthropogenic S emissions, respectively, implying that 37% is exported. For NOx-N, estimated wet, dry, and droplet deposition account for 30, 43, and 4% of anthropogenic emissions, with 23% exported. Results are in general agreement with a variety of other observational analyses and regional modeling simulations, particularly for eastern North America, and are consistent with estimates of net horizontal mass fluxes of S and NOx-N across the Atlantic coast of North America.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Chang, J. S., Binkowski, F. S., and Seaman, N. L.: 1990, NAPAP SOS/T Report 4, The Regional Acidic Deposition Model and Engineering Model, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. CIRRUS: 1986, Background Concentrations of Sulfate in Precipitation along the British Columbia Coast, Report PAES-86-1, Scientific Services Division, Pacific Region, Atmospheric Environment Service, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  3. Climates of the United States, Vol. 1 & 2: 1974, Water Information Service, Inc. Port Washington, NY.Google Scholar
  4. Dennis, R. L., Barchet, W. R., Clark, T. L., and Seilkop, S. K.: 1990, NAPAP SOS/T Report 5, Evaluation of Regional Acidic Deposition Models, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Electric Power Research Institute: 1983, The Sulfate Regional Experiment: Representative Findings. EPRI EA-1901, Vol. 1–3, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  6. Eliassen, A. and Saltbones, J.: 1983, Atmos. Environ. 17, 1457.Google Scholar
  7. Federal/Provincial Research and Monitoring Coordinating Committee: 1990, The 1990 Canadian Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants and Acid Deposition Assessment Report, Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences. Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario.Google Scholar
  8. Fernau, M. and Samson, P. J.: 1986, Transactions of the Second International Specialty Conference on Meteorology of Acidic Deposition (J. Laznow and G. J. Stensland, eds.), Albany, NY, Air Pollution Control Association, 45.Google Scholar
  9. Galloway, J. N., Likens, G. E., and Hawley, M. E.: 1984, Science 226, 829.Google Scholar
  10. Galloway, J. N. and Whelpdale, D. M.: 1987, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1(4), 261.Google Scholar
  11. Hanson, P. J., Rott, K., Taylor, G. E., Gunderson, C. A., Lindberg, S. E., and Ross-Todd, B. M.: 1989, Atmos. Environ. 23, 1783.Google Scholar
  12. Hicks, B. B., Draxler, R. R., Albritton, D. L., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Hales, J. M., Meyers, T. P., Vong, R. L., Dodge, M., Schwartz, S. E., Tanner, R. L., Davidson, C. I., Lindberg, S. E., and Wesely, M. L.: 1990, NAPAP SOS/T Report 2, Atmospheric Processes Research and Process Model Development, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. Kohout, E. J., Miller, D. J., Nieves, L. A., Rothman, D. S., Saricks, C. L., Stodolsky, F., and Hanson, D. A.: 1990: Current Emission Trends for Nitrogen Oxides, Sulfur Dioxide, and Volatile Organic Compounds by Month and State: Methodology and Results. ANL/EAIS/TM-25, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.Google Scholar
  14. Logan, J. A.: 1983, J. Geophy. Res. 88, 10785.Google Scholar
  15. Patrinos, A.: 1985, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 35, 719.Google Scholar
  16. Patrinos, A.: Leach, M., and Brown, R.: 1989, J. Appl. Met. 28, 948.Google Scholar
  17. Placet, M., Battye, R. E., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and Bassett, G. W.: 1990, NAPAP SOS/T Report 1, Emissions Involved in Acidic Deposition Processes. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. Rand McNally: 1987, Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide, 118th Edition, Rand McNally, Chicago.Google Scholar
  19. Ro, C. U., Vet, R. J., and Summers, P. W.: 1990, personal communication.Google Scholar
  20. Shannon, J. D.: 1985, User's Guide for the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) Model. Report EPA-600/8-85-016, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  21. Shannon, J. D. and Lesht, B. M.: 1986, Transactions of the Second International Specialty Conference on Meteorology of Acidic Deposition, J. Laznow and G. J. Stensland (eds.), Albany NY, Air Pollution Control Association, 28.Google Scholar
  22. Shannon, J. D. and Voldner, E. C.: 1982, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 18, 101.Google Scholar
  23. Sirois, A. and Barrie, L. A.: 1988, Tellus, 40B, 59.Google Scholar
  24. Sisterson, D. L., Bowersox, V. C., Olsen, A. R., Meyers, T. P., Vong, R. J., Simpson, J. C., and Mohnen, V.: 1990, NAPAP SOS/T Report 6, Deposition Monitoring: Methods and Results. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  25. Sisterson, D. L. and Shannon, J. D.: 1990, Atmos. Environ. 24B, 389.Google Scholar
  26. Streets, D. G., Lesht, B. M., Shannon, J. D., and Veselka, T. D.: 1985, Environ. Sci. & Technol. 19, 887.Google Scholar
  27. Venkatram, A., McNaughton, D., Karamchandani, P. K., Shannon, J. D., Sisterson, D. L., and Fernau, M.: 1990, NAPAP SOST/T Report 8, Relationships Between Atmospheric Emissions and Deposition/ Air Quality. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  28. World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 11, Climatology of North America. Bryson, R. A. and Hare, F. K. (eds.): 1974, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack D. Shannon
    • 1
  • Douglas L. Sisterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Research DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

Personalised recommendations