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Fresenius' Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie

, Volume 323, Issue 5, pp 421–449 | Cite as

Analytical science for the development of microelectronic devices

  • M. Grasserbauer
  • G. Stingeder
  • H. Pötzl
  • E. Guerrero
Review

Summary

The new technical revolution, the development and introduction of microelectronics poses a great challenge for Analytical Chemistry: the material and process related analytical problems largely refer to extremely small concentrations and spatial dimensions. A successful treatment of such problems is only possible through the use of the most modern, mainly physical techniques, for which reason it seems appropriate to speak of “Analytical Science”.

This paper tries to demonstrate the potential of Analytical Science for the development of sophisticated microelectronic devices, taking as an example the most highly integrated circuit, the Direct Random Access Memory (DRAM). Referring to the various steps of production of such a device in MOS. technology the most important analytical problems and their treatment with analytical methods are discussed: purity and chemical surface structure of silicon wafers, behaviour of dopant elements during the basic operations of MOS technology (oxidation, implantation, annealing), chemical and physical features of metallization layers, and functional and chemical investigation of devices. Special emphasis is placed on the behaviour of the dopant elements which are decisive for the electrical properties of a device. It is shown that mainly physical analytical techniques like SIMS, NAA, RBS, TEM provide valuable new and quantitative information about the chemical and physical processes occurring in the semiconductor material during production of a device. This information enables substantial progress in process modelling, which is an important basis for further development of devices towards higher integration and complexity.

Keywords

Silicon Wafer Analytical Problem Chemical Investigation Metallization Layer High Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Symbols used

dA

diameter of analyzed volume

dz

depth of analyzed volume

(rel) DL

(relative) detection limit

Eo

excitation energy

iB

(primary) beam intensity

Analytische Wissenschaft für die Entwicklung mikroelektronischer Bauelemente

Zusammenfassung

Die neue technologische Revolution, nämlich Entwicklung und Einführung der Mikroelektronik, stellt für die Analytische Chemie eine der größten Herausforderungen dar: Die material- und prozeßbezogenen Fragestellungen beziehen sich nämlich in hohem Maße auf extrem kleine Konzentrationen und räumliche Dimensionen. Eine erfolgreiche Behandlung derartiger Fragestellungen ist nur durch Einsätz modernster, überwiegend auf der Physik basierender Hochleistungsanalytik („Analytische Wissenschaft“) möglich.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird versucht, die Rolle dieser Analytischen Wissenschaft für die Entwicklung mikroelektronischer Bauelemente am Beispiel des höchstintegrierten Direct Random Access Memory (DRAM) darzustellen. Ausgehend von den verschiedenen Stufen der Herstellung eines solchen Bauelementes in MOS-Technologie werden die wichtigsten analytischen Fragestellungen und deren Behandlung mit analytischen Methoden diskutiert: Reinheit und chemische Oberflächenstruktur der Siliciumwafer, Verteilung und Reaktionen der Dotierungselemente während der Grundoperationen des MOS-Prozesses (Oxidation, Implantation, Ausheilung), chemische und physikalische Eigenschaften der Metallisierungsstrukturen und funktionelle sowie chemische Untersuchungen der Bauelemente. Besonders eingegangen wird auf die Dotierungselemente, welche die elektrischen Eigenschaften eines Bauelementes bestimmen. Es wird gezeigt, daß in erster Linie physikalische Methoden wie SIMS, NAA, RBS, TEM wichtige neue und quantitative Informationen über die bei der Herstellung eines Bauelementes im Halbleiter ablaufenden chemischen und physikalischen Prozesse liefern. Diese Informationen ermöglichen wesentliche Verbesserungen in der Modellierung dieser Prozesse. Dies ist wiederum eine wesentliche Grundlage für die Weiterentwicklung mikroelektronischer Bauelemente in Richtung höherer Integration und Komple-xität.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Grasserbauer
    • 1
  • G. Stingeder
    • 1
  • H. Pötzl
    • 2
    • 3
  • E. Guerrero
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Physical AnalysisTechnical UniversityWienAustria
  2. 2.Institute for General Electrical Engineering and ElectronicsTechnical University
  3. 3.Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Solid State PhysicsWienAustria

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