Advertisement

Mycopathologia

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 163–172 | Cite as

Keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi of children's sandpits in the city of Turin

  • V. Filipello Marchisio
Article

Abstract

Soils rich in keratinic residues constitute a permanent or occasional reservoir for dermatophytes and keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi, and are a source of potential infection for man and animals.

The keratinolytic and keratinophilic mycoflora of 28 sandpits in Turin was studied to evaluate the risk of fungal skin infections that is run by children as they play in public parks and to lay the ground-work for a next epidemiological study of soil- and animal-inhabiting dermatophytes found in cities, and their impact on human dermatophytoses. Fifty seven species were isolated and a high percentage (52%) showed keratinolytic activity. Species of Microsporum, Trichophyton, Mariannaea, Aphanoascus, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Geomyces showed the most active keratinolysis.

Keywords

keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi potential pathogen fungi 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abdel-Fattah HM, Moubasher AH, Maghazy SM: Keratinolytic fungi in Egyptian soils. Mycopathologia 79:49–54, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agrawal PK, Lal B, Wahab S, Srivastava OP, Misra SC: Orbital paecilomycosis due to Paecilomyces lilacinus. Sabouraudia 17:363–370, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ajello L, Georg LK: In vitro hair cultures for differentiating between atypical isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum. Mycopath Mycol App 8:3–17, 1957.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ajello L, Mantovani A, Mazzoni A: Ricerche sui funghi patogeni e cheratinofilici dei terrreni dell'Emilia-Romagna. Riv Ital Ig 26:321–330, 1966.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albala F, Moreda A, Lopez G: Isolation of Anixiopsis stercoraria on human dermal lesions in Zaragoza (Spain). Soc Fr Mycol Med 11:287–290, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al Doory Y: Further studies of the keratiniphilic fungi in African soil. Mycopath. Mycol Appl 39:287–292, 1969.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Altmeyer P, Schon K: Cutaneous granulomas due to Ulocladium chartarum. Hautarzt 32:36–38, 1981.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alvarez DP, De Bracalenti BJC: Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton ajelloi. Mycopathologia 77:27–30, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Battelli G, Bianchedi M, Frigo W, Amorati P, Mantovani A, Pagliani A: Survey of keratinophilic fungi in alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) burrow soil in adjoining soils. Sabouraudia 16:83–86, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benedek T: Fragmenta mycologica. I. Some historical remarks on the development of ‘hairbaiting’ of Toma-Karling-Vanbreuseghem (The Tokava-hairbaiting method). Mycopath Mycol Appl 16:104–106, 1962.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Böhme H, Ziegler H: Kenatinabbau durch Pilze. Arch Mikrobiol 57:93–110, 1967.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campos NE: The main dermatomycosis diagnosed in the National Central Laboratory of Animal Diagnostic Pathology (Mexico). Bol Soc Mex Micol 0:115–120, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Caretta G, Del Frate G: Funghi cheratinofili dell'isola di Montecristo: isolamenti da suolo, escrementi e pelo di animali e piume di uccelli. Atti Ist Bot Lab Critt Pavia 11:203–208, 1976.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caretta G, Del Frate G, Piontelli E, Todaro F: Micoflora cheratinofila del pelo e dello sterco di mucca, del foraggio e del suolo di fattoria: considerazioni sulla loro distribuzione. Riv Parassit 37:333–361, 1976.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caretta G, Del Frate G, Piontelli E, Todaro F: Distribuzione di funghi cheratinofili nel suolo del vulcano Etna (Sicilia). Riv Parassit 38:115–127, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caretta G, Piontelli E: Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil in Pavia, Italy Sabouraudia 13:33–37, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chatter JA, Chattopadhyay D, Chatterjee D, Sengupta DN: Isolation of dermatophytes from rural and urban soil samples in premises of infected and non infected animals. Int J Zoonoses 10:22–27, 1983.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen AW: Soil physical factors and the ecology of fungi. 5. Further study in relatively dry soils. Trans Br mycol Soc 49:419–426, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chermette RJ, Bussieras J, Bourdeau P: Two cases of double and generalized dermatophytosis in the canine. Bull Soc Fr Mycol Med 11:205–210, 1982.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chittasobhon N, Smith JMB: The production of experimental dermatophyte lesions in guinea pigs. J Invest Dermatol 73:198–201, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chmel L, Hasilikova A, Hrasko J, Vlacilikova A: the influence of some ecological factors on keratinophilic fungi in the soil. Sabouraudia 10:26–34, 1972.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chmel L, Vlacilikova A: The ecology of keratinophilic fungi at different depths of soil. Sabouraudia 13:185–191, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chmel L, Vlacilikova A: Keratinophilic fungi in some types of soil and factors influencing their occurrence. Biologia (Bratislava) 32:53–59, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Conti D, Civilia E Microsporum gypseum: endothrix parasitism with medium to large spores in the hairs of children. Sabouraudia 17:51–54, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coudert J, Michel-Brun J, Mojon M, Pichot J: Recherche sur les keratinophiles du sol et leur incidence sur la pathologie cutanée humaine dans la region lyonnaise. Dermatologica 159:147–156, 1979.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cuero RG: Ecological distribution of Fusarium solani and its opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis in Cali, Columbia. J Clin Microbiol 12:455–461, 1980.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    De Bracalenti BJC, Alvarez DP, Colella MG: Ecologia de los dermatofitos. I Correlacion entre Dermatofitias y hongos queratinophilicos de suelos de Rosario. Sabouraudia 13:255–262, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    De Vries GA, Luykx MHF, Elders MCC: The development of the keratinophilic, thermophilic and thermotolerant fungus microflora in newly reclaimed land in the Netherlands. Proc of the VII Congress of ISHAM, Jerusalem, Israel, 1979.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    De Vroey C, Rechacochea M: Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soil in northwestern Nepal. Bull Soc Fr Mycol Med 6:207–210, 1977.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dominik T, Ihnatowicz A, Kopilow H, Mietkiewski R: Mycoflore of sand-boxes in kindergardens in Szczecin. Ekol pol 21:901–923, 1973.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dominik T, Majchrowicz I: A trial for isolating keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi from the soils cemeteries and forests of Szczecin. Ekol pol 13:415–447, 1964.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson T: Compedium of soil fungi. Acad Press London.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    English MP: The saprophytic growth of non keratinophilic fungi on keratin. Sabouraudia 2:115–130, 1963.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    English MP: The saprophytic growth of non keratinophilic fungi on keratinized substrata, and a comparison with keratinophilic fungi. Trans Br mycol Soc 48.219–235, 1965.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    English MP: The developmental morphology of perforating organs and eroding mycelium of Dermatophytes. Sabouraudia 6:218–227, 1968.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    English MP: Destruction of hair by Chrysosporium keratinophilum. Trans Br mycol Soc 52:247–255, 1969.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    English MP: Destruction of hair by two species of Chysosporium. Trans Br mycol Soc 66:357–358, 1976.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Filipello Marchisio V, Luppi Mosca AM: Attività cheratinolitica in vitro di miceti isolati dalle sabbie di un arenile in un parco giochi. Allionia 24:127–131, 1980.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Filipello Marchisio V, Luppi Mosca AM: Mycological analysis of the sands of a box for children's play. Mycopathologia 80:43–54, 1982.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fromtling RA, Robinson BE, Jensen, JM, Bulmer GS: Fatal pulmonary beauveriosis in captive american alligators. Abstr Annu Meet Am Soc Microbiol 79:366, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gams W: Cephalosporium-artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). G Fischer, Stuttgart, 1971.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Georg LK, Williamson WM, Tilden EB, Getty RE: Mycotic pulmonary disease of captive giant tottoises to Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumoso-roseus. Sabouraudia 2:80–86, 1962.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Griffin DM: Fungal colonization of sterile hair in contant with soil. Trans Br mycol Soc 43:583–596, 1960.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Griffin DM: Soil physical factors and the ecology of fungi in relatively dry soil. Trans Br mycol Soc 46:373–377, 1963.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hubalek Z: The distribution patterns of fungi in free-living birds. Acta Sci Natn Acad Sci Bohemosl Brno 8:1–51, 1974.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hubalek Z, Hornich H: Experimental infection of white mouse with Chysosporium and Paecilomyces. Mycopathologia 62:173–178, 1977.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jakle C, Leek JC, Olson DA, Robbins DL: Septic arthritis due to Fusarium solani. J Rheumatol 10:151–153, 1983.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jun JB, Suh SB: Clinical and mycological studies on Microsporum gypseum infection. Korean J Dermatol 18:369–382, 1980.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kamalam A, Thambiah AS: Prevalence of dermatomycoses in Madras city, India. Indian J Med Res 73:513–518, 1981.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kanitakis C, Panagiotidou D, Koussidou T, Badillet G: Dermatophytoses in Salonika (Greece). Bull Soc Fr Mycol Med 11:223–226, 1982.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Khosa RK, Girla HS, Haj'ini SBM, Singh GM: Study of dermatomycoses. Int J Dermatol 20:130–132, 1981.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kothe A, Zschulke E: Endemic tinea microscopica workers engaged in the industrial production of ornamental plants. Z Gesamte Hyg Grenzgeb 27:67–68, 1981.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kwon-Chung KJ, Schwartz JS, Rybak BJ: A pulmonary fungus ball produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides. Am J Clin Path 64:564–568, 1975.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Le Fichoux Y, Marty P, Barelli L: Two new cases of dermatophytosis due to Nannizia incurvata. Bull Soc Fr Mycol Med 10:235–238, 1981.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lieberman TW, Ferry AP, Bottone EJ: Fusarium solani endophtalmitis without primary corneal involvement. Am J Ophtalmol 88:764–767, 1980.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lopez-Morales J: Ricerche sui funghi cheratinofili patogeni di terreni della città di Bologna. Riv Ital Ig 34:42–46, 1974.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Majchrowicz I, Dominik T: Further contribution to the knowledge of keratinolytic and keratinophilic soil fungi of the region of Szczecin. Keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi in the immediate surroundings of cattle. Ekol Pol 17:87–116, 1969.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Malbran E, Albesi EJ, Daro H, Zapater RC: Endophtalmitis por Penicillium lilacinum. Archos Oftal B Aires 48:253–258, 1973.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mangiarotti AM, Caretta G: Keratinophilic fungi isolated from a small pool. Mycopathologia 85:9–11, 1984.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mantovani A: The role of animals in the epidemiology of the mycoses. Mycopathologia 65:61–66, 1978.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mantovani A, Ajello L, Nazzaro P: Epidemiologia delle micosi. Giorn Mal Inf Parass 27:685–691, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    McAleer R: Investigation of keratinophilic fungi from soils in western Australia: a preliminary survey. Mycopathologia 72:155–166, 1980.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    McAleer R: Keratinophilic fungi on four animal groups. Aust Vet J 56:387–390, 1980.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    McAleer R: Zoophilic dermatophytes and their natural host in western Australia. Med J Aust 67:506–508, 1980.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mercantini R, Marsella R, Caprilli F: Isolation of keratinomycetes from the soil of wild animal cages and enclosures in the zoo of the Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Italy. Sabouraudia 16:285–289, 1978.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mercantini R, Marsella R, Caprilli F, Dovgiallo G: Isolation of Dermatophytes and correlated species from the soil of public gardens and parks in Rome. Sabouraudia 18:123–128, 1980.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Monga DP, Mohapatra LN: A compilation of published reports of mycoses in animals in India. Mycopathologia 72:3–12, 1980.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Muhammed SI, Lalji N: The distribution of geophilic Dermatophytes in Kenyan soils. Mycopathologia 63:123–128, 1978.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    O'Day DM, Akrabawi P, Jones BR: An animal model of Fusarium solani infection. Invest Ophtalmol Visual Sci suppl: 22, 1977.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    O'Day DM, Akrabawi P, Richmond L, Jones BR, Clayton Y: An animal model of Fusarium solani endophtalmitis. Br J Ophtalmol 63:277–280, 1979.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Onsberg P: Human infections with Microsporum gypseum in Denmark. Br Dermatol 99:527–530, 1978.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Orr GF: Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils by a modified hair bait technique. Sabouraudia 7:129–134, 1969.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Palenkarova E: A contribution towards better knowledge of geo-vertical distribution of keratinophilic fungi in montane and submontane soils. Biologia (Bratislava) 32:61–67, 1977.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pettit TH, Randall JO, Foos RY, Martin WJ: Fungal endophtalmitis following intraocular lens implantations: a surgical epidemic. Arch Ophtalmol 98:1025–1039, 1980.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pinetti P, Biggio P: Studio dei rapporti che intercorrono tra costituzione chimica del terreno e presenza in esso di miceti cheratinofili. Rass. Med. Sarda 70:469–484, 1967.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Piontelli E, Caretta G: Considerazioni ecologiche su alcuni Geomiceti isolati su substrati cheratinici, in località montagnose delle Ande del Cile. Riv. Patologia vegetale: 10:261–314, 1974.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Presbury DGC, Young N: Trichophyton ajelloi isolated from a child. Sabouraudia 16:233–235, 1978.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rippon JW: Medical mycology. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1982.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rippon JW, Lee FC, McMillen S: Dermatophyte infection caused by Aphanoascus fulvescens. Arch Dermatol 102:552–555, 1970.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rockhill RC, Klein MD: Paecilomyces lilacinus as the cause of chronic maxillary sinusitis. J Clin Microbiol 11:737–739, 1980.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Savir H, Henig E, Lehrer N: Exogenous mycotic infections of the eye and adnexa. Ann Ophtalmol 10:1013–1018, 1978.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schol-Schwarz MB: Rhinocladiella, its synonym Fonsecaea and its relation to Phialophora. Antoine van Leeuwenhoek 34:119–152, 1968.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sigler L, Carmichael JW: Taxonomy of Malbranchea and some other Hyphomycetes with arthroconidia. Mycotaxon 4:349–488, 1976.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Toshitani S, Hayashi N, Nagase K, Suenaca YN: The dermatophyte flora in Department of dermatology of the Fukuoka University Hospital, Japan during the past two years. Med Bull Fukuoka Univ 7:413–418, 1980.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Van Dijk E, Van den Berg WH, Landwehr AJ: Fusarium solani infection of a hypertensive leg ulcer in a diabetic. Mykosen 23:603–606, 1980.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Van Glederen De Komaid A, Elias F: Presence of dermatophytes in the soil of school in the province of Tucuman, Argentina Rev Latinoam Microbiol 20:95–98, 1978.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Volz P, Chenghsu Y, Liu CH, Mannho S, Chen ZC: The keratinophilic fungi of Taiwan. Taiwania 20:23–31, 1975.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Waab S, Lal B, Jacob Z, Pandey WC, Srivastava OP: Studies of a strain of Fusarium solani isolated from a case of mycotic keratitis. Mycopathologia 68:31–38, 1980.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Walsh TJ, Orth DH, Shapiro CM, Levine RA, Keller JL: Metastatic fungal chorioretinitis developing during Trichosporon sepsis. Ophtalmology 89:152–156, 1982.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Weigl E: Conditioned pathogenicity of Microsporum gypseum biochemical mutants. Mycopathologia 70:3–8, 1980.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    White WL, Darby RT, Stechert GM, Sanderson K: Assay of cellulolytic activity of molds isolated from fabrics and related items exposed in the tropics. Mycologia 40:34–84, 1948.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    White WL, Mandels GR, Sin RGH: Fungi in relation to the degradation of wollen fabrics. Mycologia 42:199–223, 1950.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Filipello Marchisio
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia vegetale dell'UniversitàTorinoItalia

Personalised recommendations