Archives of orthopaedic and traumatic surgery

, Volume 104, Issue 6, pp 363–365

Cyclic impacts on heel strike: A possible biomechanical factor in the etiology of degenerative disease of the human locomotor system

  • Yoram Folman
  • Joseph Wosk
  • Arkady Voloshin
  • Shimon Liberty
Original Articles


The cyclic impacts induced by heel strike when walking were studied using both a high-resonance-frequency force plate and a low-mass skin-mounted accelerometer. The data were computer analyzed. The results showed that during normal human walking, the locomotor system is subjected to repetitive impact loads at heel strike, lasting about 5 ms and consisting of frequency spectra up to and above 100 Hz. The natural shock-absorbing structures in the musculoskeletal system have viscoelastic time-dependent mechanical behavior, which is relatively ineffective in withstanding sudden impulsive loads. Degenerative joint diseases may thus be seen as a late clinical result of fatigue failure of the natural shock absorbers, submitted to deleterious impacts over a period of time.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoram Folman
    • 1
  • Joseph Wosk
    • 2
  • Arkady Voloshin
    • 2
  • Shimon Liberty
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryHillel Jaffe HospitalHaderaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Engineering Science and MechanicsIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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