Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in human milk and blood collected in Osaka Prefecture from 1972 to 1977

  • T. Yakushiji
  • I. Watanabe
  • K. Kuwabara
  • S. Yoshida
  • K. Koyama
  • N. Kunita
Article

Summary

Annual surveys of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in human milk and blood obtained from residents in Osaka Prefecture were made for six years from 1972 to 1977. The levels of PCB in human milk were within the range reported by others, and the average concentrations were in the range from 0.03 to 0.04 ppm on the whole basis of milk, and were approximately 10 times higher than those found in blood. There were 15 exceptional milk samples whose PCB level on whole basis exceeded 0.1 ppm. The PCB levels in human milk increased from 1972 to 1974, and decreased from 1974 to 1976. However, these changes are not statistically significant, because there has been continuous environmental contamination with PCB for many years so for. There was a proportional relation between the PCB levels in blood and in milk obtained from the same mothers. The PCB levels in milk and blood of mothers who had given first childbirth were higher than those of mothers who had given the second or more childbirth. A gradual decrease in β-BHC level was observed during this period. The levels of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT and dieldrin were fairly constant from 1972 to 1976. However, remarkable decrease in the levels of the organochlorine pesticides was found in 1977.

Most of the residual PCB components and their chlorobiphenyl contents in the human milk were clarified. It was proven that there were remarkable amounts of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. A specific structure of the residual components was 4,4-substitution pattern.

All mothers and babies did not show any apparent clinical symptoms which were related to the toxic effect of the PCBs over the period of time. However, further studies concerning the toxic effect of PCBs to human infants and understanding of long-term trends of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in human milk are necessary.

Key words

Polychlorinated biphenyls Organochlorine pesticides Human milk Blood Accumulation Contamination Excretion Isomers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albro, P. W., Haseman, J. K., Clemmer, T. A., Corbett, B. J.: Identification of the individual polychlorinated biphenyls in a mixture by gas-liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 136, 147–153 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J. R., Barsotti, D. A.: The effects of transplacental and mammary movement of PCBs on infant rhesus monkeys. Toxicology 6, 331–340 (1976)Google Scholar
  3. Bush, B., Tumasonis, C. F., Baker, F. D.: Toxicity and persistence of PCB homologs and isomers in the avian system. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2, 195–212 (1974)Google Scholar
  4. Bush, B., Baker, F., Dellacqua, R., Houck, C. L., Lo Fa-Chun: Analytical response of polychlorinated biphenyl homologues and isomers in thin-layer and gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 109, 287–295 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. Curley, A., Kimbrough, R.: Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides in plasma and milk of pregnant and lactating women. Arch. Environ. Health 18, 156–185 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Gage, J. C., Holm, S.: The influence of molecular structure on the retention and excretion of PCB by the mouse. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 36, 555–560 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. Holms, D. C., Simmons, J. H., Tatton, J. O'G.: Clorinated hydrocarbons in British wildlife. Nature 216, 227–229 (1967)Google Scholar
  8. Holden, A. V., Marsden, K.: Organochlorine pesticides in seals and porpoises. Nature 216, 1274–1276 (1967)Google Scholar
  9. Isono, N.: Report of environmental pollution by PCBs. Japanese J. Water Waste 14, 1109–1117 (1972) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Jensen, S.: Report of a new chemical hazard. New Scientist 32, 612 (1966)Google Scholar
  11. Jensen, S., Johnels, A. G., Olsson, M., Otterlind, G.: DDT and PCB in marine animals from Swedish waters. Nature 224, 247–250 (1969)Google Scholar
  12. Jensen, S., Sundström, G.: Structures and levels of most chlorobiphenyls in two technical PCB products and in human adipose tissue. AMBIO 3, 70–76 (1974)Google Scholar
  13. Kuratsune, M., Yoshimura, T., Matsuzaka, J., Yamaguchi, A.: Epidemiologic study on Yusho, a poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with a commercial brand of polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ. Health Perspect. 1, 119–128 (1972)Google Scholar
  14. Kobayashi, H.: Report of organochlorine compounds in human milk. PPM 10, 2–9 (1976) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Kuwabara, K., Yakushiji, T., Watanabe, I., Yoshida, S., Koyama, K., Kunita, N., Hara, I.: Relationship between breast feeding and PCB residues in blood of the children whose mothers were occupationally exposed to PCBs. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 41, 189–197 (1978)Google Scholar
  16. Masuda, Y.: Report of PCB residues in human milk. Shoku no Kagaku 8, 88–92 (1972) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan: Official method for PCB analysis. January 1972 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan, Chemical Industry Bureau: List of the factories where PCBs were used, 1973 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Nakamura, A., Kashimoto, T.: Studies on a calculation method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) isomers — analysis by Apiezon L column —. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan 18, 1–12 (1977) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Risebrough, R. W., Rieche, P., Herman, S. G., Peakall, D. B., Kirven, M. N.: Polychlorinated biphenyls in the global ecosystem. Nature 220, 1099–1102 (1967)Google Scholar
  21. Robinson, J., Richardson, A., Crabtree, A. N., Coulson, J. C., Potts, G. R.: Organochlorine residues in marine organism. Nature 214, 1307–1311 (1967)Google Scholar
  22. Shimada, T., Ugawa, M.: Induction of liver microsomal drug metabolism by polychlorinated biphenyls whose gas chromatographic profile having much in common with that in human milk. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 78, 198–205 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. Sissons, D., Welti, D.: Structural identification of polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial mixtures by gas-liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. 60, 15–32 (1971)Google Scholar
  24. Takeshita, R., Suzuki, M., Hayashi, M.: Transference of polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue to human milk. J. Hyg. Chem. Japan 20, 256–265 (1974) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Tatsukawa, R., Isono, N.: Report of a new environmental pollution by PCBs. Shizen 6, 30–39 (1971) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Ugawa, M., Nakamura, A., Kashimoto, T.: Studies on a calculation method for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan 14, 415–424 (1973) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Umeda, G.: PCB poisoning in Japan. AMBIO 1, 132–135 (1972)Google Scholar
  28. Wakimoto, T., Tatsukawa, R.: Report of analytical method for PCBs. Japanese J. Water Waste 14, 1125–1133 (1972) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  29. Watanabe, I., Yakushiji, T., Kuwabara, K., Yoshida, S., Koyama, K., Kunita, N.: Surveillance of the daily PCB intake from diets of Japanese women from 1972 to 1976. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1978) (in press)Google Scholar
  30. Webb, R. G., McCall, A. C.: Identities of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in Aroclors. J. AOAC 55, 746–752 (1972)Google Scholar
  31. Westöö, G., Norén, K.: Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Swedish human milk. Vår föda 24, 41–53 (1972) (Swedish)Google Scholar
  32. Westöö, G., Norén, K.: Organochlorine contaminants in human milk, Stockholm 1967–1977. AMBIO 7, 62–64 (1978)Google Scholar
  33. Yakushiji, T., Tanaka, R., Kunita, N.: PCB and organochlorine pesticides in mother's milk, blood and foods. Paediatrician 6, 28–33 (1977a)Google Scholar
  34. Yakushiji, T., Watanabe, I., Kuwabara, K., Yoshida, S., Koyama, K., Kunita, N.: Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk, blood, and diet (V). Proc. Osaka Pref. Inst. Publ. Health 8, 35–44 (1977b) (Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. Yakushiji, T., Watanabe, I., Kuwabara, K., Yoshida, S., Hori, S., Fukushima, S., Kashimoto, T., Koyama, K., Kunita, N.: Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mother's milk collected in Osaka Prefecture from 1969 to 1976. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7 (1978 a) (in press)Google Scholar
  36. Yakushiji, T., Watanabe, I., Kuwabara, K., Yoshida, S.: Identification of low chlorinated biphenyls in human milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. 154, 203–210 (1978b)Google Scholar
  37. Yakushiji, T., Watanabe, I., Kuwabara, K., Yoshida, S., Koyama, K., Hara, I., Kunita, N.: Longterm studies of the excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the mother's milk of an occupationally exposed worker. Arch. Environ. Contain, Toxicol. (1978c) (in press)Google Scholar
  38. Yoshida, S., Nakamura, A.: Studies on PCB pattern in breast milk of the Swedish. Proc. Osaka Pref. Inst. Publ. Health 8, 67–71 (1977) (Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Yakushiji
    • 1
  • I. Watanabe
    • 1
  • K. Kuwabara
    • 1
  • S. Yoshida
    • 1
  • K. Koyama
    • 1
  • N. Kunita
    • 1
  1. 1.Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public HealthNakamichi, Higashinari-ku, OsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations