Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Callus formation after re-injury to experimental bone defect


Osteochondrogenic callus formation after delayed re-injury at different time intervals was evaluated. Twenty young rats were operated, and a standard bone defect reaching the medulla was sawn into the left hind leg. The rats were divided into two groups and the defect was re-created after 4 or 12 days. The rats were killed 7 or 14 days after the second operation. The developing new bone was revealed with a triple fluorochrome labelling system. The areas of bone and cartilage were measured histomorphometrically. The results suggested that an external factor, re-trauma, could increase both external and internal primary osteogenic callus formation. The optimum time to potentiate bone formation in the defects was found to be earlier than identifed in previous fracture studies. After a 4-day delay the external callus was significantly larger than after the 12-day delay. Cartilage formation was not enhanced despite the sudden increase in osteogenic callus formation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Brighton CT, Krebs AG (1972) Oxygen tension of healing fractures in the rabbit. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 54:323–332

  2. 2.

    Charnley J, Guindy A (1961) Delayed operation in the open reduction of fractures of long bones. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 43:664–671

  3. 3.

    Ellsasser JC, Moyer CF, Lesker PA, Simmons DJ (1975) Improved healing of experimental long bone fractures in rabbits by delayed internal fixation. J Trauma 15:869–876

  4. 4.

    Emery MA, Murakami H (1967) The features of fracture healing in cats after immediate and delayed open reduction. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 49:571–579

  5. 5.

    Goldner J (1938) A modification of the Masson trichrome technique for routine laboratory purposes. Am J Pathol 14:237–243

  6. 6.

    Göransson H, Pätiälä H, Linden M, Rokkanen P (1992) Histology and histomorphometry of bone regeneration after experimental injuries. Ann Chir Gynaecol 81:58–65

  7. 7.

    Heppenstal RB, Grislis G, Hunt TK (1975) Tissue gas tensions and oxygen consumption in healing bone defects. Clin Orthop 106:357–365

  8. 8.

    James WV (1964) The time factor in the operative treatment of fractures of the long bones. J Int Coll Surg 41:515–520

  9. 9.

    Lam SJ (1964) The place of delayed internal fixation in the treatment of fractures of the long bones. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 46:393–397

  10. 10.

    McKibbin B (1978) The biology of fracture healing in long bones. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 60:150–162

  11. 11.

    Milch RA, Rall DP, Tobie JE, Albrecht JM, Trivers G (1958) Fluoresence of tetracycline antibiotics in bone. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 40:897–910

  12. 12.

    Olerud S, Lorenzi GL (1970) Triple fluorochrome labeling in bone formation and bone resorption. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 52:274–278

  13. 13.

    Piekarski K, Wiley AM, Bartels JE (1969) The effect of delayed internal fixation on fracture healing. Acta Orthop Scand 40:543–551

  14. 14.

    Rahn BA, Perren SM (1971) Xylenol orange, a fluorochrome useful in polychrome sequential labeling of calcifying tissues. Stain Tech 46:125–129

  15. 15.

    Revell PA (1983) Histomorphometry of bone. J Clin Pathol 36:1323–1331

  16. 16.

    Schenk R (1965) Zur histologischen Verarbeitung von unentkalkten Knochen. Acta Anat 60:3–19

  17. 17.

    Sevitt S (1981) Bone repair and fracture healing in man. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 83

  18. 18.

    Slager RF, Smith WS (1959) The second injury phenomen as it relates to fractures. Surg Forum 10:826–827

  19. 19.

    Smith JEM (1959) Internal fixation in the treatment of fractures of the shaft of the radius and ulna in adults. The value of delayed operation in the prevention of non-union. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 41:28–31

  20. 20.

    Smith JEM (1964) The results of early and delayed internal fixation of fractures of the shaft of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 46:28–31

  21. 21.

    Smith JEM (1974) Results of early and delayed internal fixation for tibial shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 56:469–477

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to H. Göransson M.D..

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Göransson, H. Callus formation after re-injury to experimental bone defect. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 112, 232–235 (1993).

Download citation


  • Public Health
  • Bone Formation
  • External Factor
  • Optimum Time
  • Bone Defect