Quality of Life Research

, Volume 2, Issue 5, pp 349–356 | Cite as

Swedish population norms for the GHRI, HI and STAI-state

  • C. Forsberg
  • H. Björvell
Research Papers


This paper presents reference values for two questionnaires measuring general health, the General Health Rating Index (GHRI) and the Health Index (HI) and one questionnaire measuring anxiety state, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-state). The sample used was randomly selected from a Swedish urban population consisting of 180 individuals (90 men, 90 women), divided into three age groups, 26–45, 46–65 and > 65 years. There was a main effect for age on the total GHRI score. The GHRI score was lower for older than for younger people, which is in agreement with earlier studies. For the HI there were main effects both for gender and age and no interaction was found. Although the sample size is small our result was in agreement to earlier studies and to health statistics in Sweden 1989. The health measures significantly correlated with the scores of anxiety inventory used. The total GHRI scores correlated positively and significantly with the HI scale (r=0.7, p<0.001). The GHRI and HI scales correlated negatively and significantly with the STAI scale (r=−0.4, p<0.001, r=−0.4, p<0.001) respectively. Thus, the better the general health the lower the rated anxiety. The value of health status measures in clinical research is reasonably well established, but their values for clinical care are less clear. The use for health index scores for quality assurance purpose is almost unexplored and could possibly be used for outcome measures in evaluating areas of nursing interventions. The short Health index is one possible outcome measure.

Key words

Health status mood state pain quality of life GHRI HI STAI 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    WareJE, BrookRH, DaviesA, LohrK. Choosing measures of health status for individuals in general populations. Am J Public Health 1981; 71: 620–625.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organisation. Constitution of the World Health Organisation. In: Basic Documents, Geneva: WHO, 1948.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    BrorssonB, IfverJ, HaysRD. The Swedish health-related quality of life survey (SWED-QUAL)—results from adapting and testing an English language health related quality of life meausre. Quality Life Res 1993; 2: 33–45.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BerwickDM, MurphyJM, GoldmanP, WareJ, BarskyA, WeinsteinM. Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Med Care 1991; 29: 169–76.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    SullivanM. Quality of life assessment in medicine. Concepts, definitions, purposes, and basic tools. Nord Psykiatrisk Tidskrift 1992; 46: 79–83.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    WareJD Jr. Scales for measuring general health perceptions. Health Serv Res 1976; 11: 394–415.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hansagi H, Rosenqvist U. Health Index. Department of Social Medicine, Huddinge Hospital. 1982 Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    NordströmGM, NymanGR, TheorellT. Psychosocial adjustment and general state of health in patients with ileal conduit urinary diversion. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1992; 26: 139–47.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    LangiusA, BjörvellH. Oral and pharyngeal cancer patients' perceived sympotoms and health. Cancer Nursing 1993; 16: 214–221.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    SpielbergerCD, GorsuchRL, LusheneRE. STAI manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    SpielbergerCD. The measurement of state and trait anxiety: conceptual and methodological issues. In: LeviL, ed. Emotions—Their Parameters and Measurement. New York: Raven Press, 1975: 713–725.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    WallensteinS, ZuckerCL, FleissJL. Some statistical methods useful in circulation research. Circ Res 1980; 47: 1–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    NelsonE, HaysRD, ArnoldS, KwohK. SherbourneS. Age and Functional Health Status. Report P-7570, June 1989. Santa Monica, The RAND Corporation: 1989.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Health in Sweden. Yearbook of Health Statistics 91/92. Statistics Sweden SCB 1991.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    CronbachLJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psykometrika 1951; 16: 297–334.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    PolitD, HunglerB. Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. London: B Lippincott Co., 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Forsberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Björvell
    • 1
  1. 1.R & D Unit for Nursing, Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska InstituteKarolinska HospitalStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryKarolinska HospitalStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations