Advertisement

Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 100, Issue 1, pp 5–24 | Cite as

A phototrophic gliding filamentous bacterium of hot springs, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, gen. and sp. nov.

  • Beverly K. Pierson
  • Richard W. Castenholz
Article

Abstract

Chloroflexus aurantiacus, gen. and sp. n., is a filamentous phototrophic bacterium of hot springs. On an agar surface, holotype strain J-10-fl glides at 0.01–0.04 μm/sec. The filaments are 0.6–0.7 μm in width and indeterminate in length. Pigments include bacteriochlorophyll c and bacteriochlorophyll a (identified by spectrophotometry) in addition to β and γ-carotene and glycosides of the latter. Chlorobium vesicles are present. Photoheterotrophic growth occurs under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic chemoheterotrophic growth also occurs in darkness or light. Bacteriochlorophyll syntheses cease under aerobic conditions but some types of carotenoids continue to be made. The filament coloration is orange under all except anaerobic conditions in low light intensity where it is dull green. The pH optimum is near 8, the temperature optimum between 52° and 60°C. The DNA base composition for strain J-10-fl is 54.9 ± 1.0 moles % guanine + cytosine. Chloroflexus is unique in that there have been no previous reports of filamentous or gliding phototrophic bacteria. The combinations of bacteriochlorophylls a and c and the presence of chlorobium vesicles in a photoheterotroph and in an organism capable of aerobic growth are also unique. This metabolically versatile organism extends the taxonomic and phylogenetic limits of the “green line” of phototrophic bacteria.

Key words

Chloroflexus Thermophilic Photosynthetic Bacterium Filamentous Gliding Bacteriochlorophyll Chlorobium Vesicles Photoheterotrophic 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aasen, A. J., Liaaen-Jensen, S.: The carotenoids of flexibacteria. II. A new xanthophyll from Saprospira grandis. Acta chem. scand. 20, 811–819 (1966a)Google Scholar
  2. Aasen, A. J., Liaaen-Jensen, S.: The carotenoids of flexibacteria. III. The structure of flexixanthin and deoxy-flexixanthin. Acta. chem. scand. 20, 1970–1988 (1966b)Google Scholar
  3. Aasen, A. J., Liaaen-Jensen, S.: Carotenoids of flexibacteria. IV. The carotenoids of two further pigment types. Acta chem. scand. 20, 2322–2324 (1966c)Google Scholar
  4. Bauld, J., Brock, T. D.: Ecological studies of Chloroflexis, a gliding photosynthetic bacterium. Arch. Mikrobiol. 92, 267–284 (1973)Google Scholar
  5. Castenholz, R. W.: Thermophilic blue-green algae and the thermal environment. Bact. Rev. 33, 476–504 (1969)Google Scholar
  6. Castenholz, R. W.: Ecology of blue-green algae in hot springs, pp. 379–414. In: N. G. Carr, L. B. A. Whitton, Eds.: The biology of blue-green algae. London: Blackwell 1973aGoogle Scholar
  7. Castenholz, R. W.: The possible photosynthetic use of sulfide by the filamentous phototrophic bacteria of hot springs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 863–876 (1973b)Google Scholar
  8. Cohen-Bazire, G., Pfennig, N., Kunisawa, R.: The fine structure of the green bacteria. J. Cell Biol. 22, 207–225 (1964)Google Scholar
  9. Cruden, D. L., Stanier, R. Y.: The characterization of chlorobium vesicles and membranes isolated from green bacteria. Arch. Mikrobiol. 72, 115–134 (1970)Google Scholar
  10. Edelman, M., Swinton, D., Schiff, J. A., Epstein, H. T., Zeldin, B.: Deoxyribonucleic acid of the blue-green algae (Cyanophyta). Bact. Rev. 31, 315–331 (1967)Google Scholar
  11. Fox, D. L., Lewin, R. A.: A preliminary study of the carotenoids of some flexibacteria. Canad. J. Microbiol. 9, 753–768 (1963)Google Scholar
  12. Goldfine, H.: Comparative aspects of bacterial lipids. Advanc. Microbiol. Physiol. 8, 1–58 (1972)Google Scholar
  13. Gray, B. H., Fowler, C. F., Nugent, N. A., Rigopoulos, N., Fuller, R. C.: Reevaluation of Chloropseudomonas ethylica strain 2-K. Int. J. Syst. Bact. 23, 256–264 (1973)Google Scholar
  14. Halfen, L. N., Pierson, B. K., Francis, C. W.: Carotenoids of a gliding organism containing bacteriochlorophylls. Arch. Mikrobiol. 82, 240–246 (1972)Google Scholar
  15. Hertzberg, S., Liaaen-Jensen, S., Siegelman, H. W.: The carotenoids of blue-green algae. Phytochem. 10, 3121–3127 (1971)Google Scholar
  16. Jensen, T. E.: Electron microscopy of polyphosphate bodies in a blue-green alga, Nostoc pruniforme. Arch. Mikrobiol. 62, 144–152 (1968)Google Scholar
  17. Jensen, T. E.: Fine structure of developing polyphosphate bodies in a blue-green alga, Plectonema boryanum. Arch. Mikrobiol. 67, 328–338 (1969)Google Scholar
  18. Jensen, T. E., Sicko, L. M.: Fine structure of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid granules in a blue-green alga, Chlorogloea fritschii. J. Bact. 106, 683–686 (1970)Google Scholar
  19. Kellenberger, E., Ryter, A., Sechand, J.: Electron microscopic study of DNA-containing plasms. II. Vegetative and mature phage DNA as compared with normal bacterial nucleoids in different physiological states. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 4, 671–678 (1958)Google Scholar
  20. Kenyon, C. N.: Fatty acid composition of unicellular strains of blue-green algae. J. Bact. 109, 827–834 (1972)Google Scholar
  21. Kenyon, C. N., Gray, A. M.: Preliminary analysis of the lipids and fatty acids of green bacteria and Chloroflexus aurantiacus. J. Bact. (in press, 1974)Google Scholar
  22. Kenyon, C. N., Stanier, R. Y.: Possible evolutionary significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in blue-green algae. Nature (Lond.) 227, 1164–1165 (1970)Google Scholar
  23. Komárek, J.: Culture collections, pp. 519–524. In: N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, Eds., The biology of blue-green algae. London: Blackwell 1973Google Scholar
  24. Law, J. H., Slepecky, R. A.: Assay of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid. J. Bact. 82, 33–36 (1961)Google Scholar
  25. Lewin, R. A.: New Herpetosiphon species (Flexibacterales). Canad. J. Microbiol. 16, 517–520 (1970)Google Scholar
  26. Mandel, M., Leadbetter, E. R., Pfennig, N., Trüper, H. G.: Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of phototrophic bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bact. 21, 222–230 (1971)Google Scholar
  27. Mandel, M., Lewin, R. A.: Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of flexibacteria. J. gen. Microbiol. 58, 171–178 (1969)Google Scholar
  28. Meynell, G. G., Meynell, E.: Theory and practice in experimental bacteriology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 1965 (2nd ed. 1970)Google Scholar
  29. Mollenhauer, H. H.: Plastic embedding mixtures for use in electron microscopy. Stain Technol. 39, 111–114 (1964)Google Scholar
  30. Nichols, B. W.: Comparative lipid biochemistry of photosynthetic organisms, pp. 105–118. In: J. B. Harbone, Ed., Phytochemical phylogeny. New York: Academic Press 1970Google Scholar
  31. Nichols, B. W., Harris, R. V., James, A. T.: The lipid metabolism of blue-green algae. Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun. 20, 256–262 (1965)Google Scholar
  32. Pierson, B. K.: The characterization of gliding filamentous phototrophic bacteria. Ph. D. thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene (1973)Google Scholar
  33. Pierson, B. K., Castenholz, R. W.: Bacteriochlorophylls in gliding filamentous prokaryotes from hot springs. Nature New Biol. 233, 25–27 (1971)Google Scholar
  34. Pierson, B. K., Castenholz, R. W.: Studies of pigments and growth in Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a phototrophic filamentous bacterium. Arch. Microbiol. (submitted for publ. 1974)Google Scholar
  35. Pierson, B. K., Howard, H. M.: Detection of bacteriochlorophyll-containing microorganisms by infrared fluorescence photomicrography. J. gen. Microbiol. 73, 359–363 (1972)Google Scholar
  36. Poos, J. C., Turner, F. R., White, D., Simon, G. D., Bacon, K., Russell, C. T.: Growth, cell division, and fragmentation in a species of Flexibacter. J. Bact. 112, 1387–1395 (1972)Google Scholar
  37. Pringsheim, E. G.: The Vitreoscillaceae: a family of colourless, gliding, filamentous organisms. J. gen. Microbiol. 5, 124–149 (1951)Google Scholar
  38. Schmidt, K.: Carotenoids of purple nonsulfur bacteria. Arch. Mikrobiol. 77, 231–238 (1971)Google Scholar
  39. Schmidt, K., Schiburr, R.: Die Carotinoide der grünen Schwefelbakterien: Carotinoid-Zusammensetzung in 18 Stämmen. Arch. Mikrobiol. 74, 350–355 (1970)Google Scholar
  40. Simon, G. D., White, D.: Growth and morphological characteristics of a species of Flexibacter. Arch. Mikrobiol. 78, 1–16 (1971)Google Scholar
  41. Wood, J. B., Nichols, B. W., James, A. T.: The lipid and fatty acid metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 106, 261–273 (1965)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beverly K. Pierson
    • 1
  • Richard W. Castenholz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of OregonEugene

Personalised recommendations