, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

Neuroleptic-induced akathisia: a review

  • Lenard A. Adler
  • Burt Angrist
  • Stewart Reiter
  • John Rotrosen


Neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA) is a relatively common side effect of neuroleptics, in which patients complain of a subjective sense of restlessness usually referable to the legs and have characteristic motor movements. This paper will review: 1) history of spontaneously occurring syndromes of pathologic restlessness and NIA, 2) the clinical significance of NIA, 3) issues concerning the diagnosis and quantification of NIA, 4) treatments of NIA and 5) possible future directions for research in this area. Special attention will be paid to newer treatments for this syndrome, specifically beta-blockers.

Key words

Akathisia Neuroleptics Beta-blockers 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lenard A. Adler
    • 1
  • Burt Angrist
    • 1
  • Stewart Reiter
    • 1
  • John Rotrosen
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatry Service, New York VAMC and Department of PsychiatryNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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