Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 17–35 | Cite as

Meso- and macrozooplankton communities in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

  • Elisabeth Boysen-Ennen
  • Uwe Piatkowski
Article

Summary

The present paper describes composition and abundance of meso- and macrozooplankton in the epipelagic zone of the Weddell Sea and gives a systematic review of encountered species regarding results of earlier expeditions. Material was sampled from 6 February to 10 March 1983 from RV Polarstern with a RMT 1+8 m (320 and 4500 μm mesh size). In agreement with topography and water mass distribution three distinct communities were defined, clearly separated by cluster analysis: The Southern Shelf Community has lowest abundances (approx. 9000 ind./1000 m3). Euphausia crystallorophias and Metridia gerlachei are predominating. Compared with the low overall abundance the number of regularly occurring species is high (55) due to many neritic forms. Herbivores and omnivores are dominating (58% and 35%). The North-eastern Shelf Community has highest abundances (about 31 000 ind./1000 m3). It is predominated by copepodites I–III of Calanus propinquus and Calanoides acutus (61%). The faunal composition is characterized by both oceanic and neritic species (64). Fine-filter feeders are prevailing (65%). The Oceanic Community has a mean abundance of approximately 23 000 ind./1000 m3, consisting of 61 species. Dominances are not as pronounced as in the shelf communities. Apart from abundant species like Calanus propinquus, Calanoides acutus, Metridia gerlachei, Oithona spp. and Oncaea spp. many typical inhabitants of the Eastwind Drift are encountered. All feeding types have about the same importance in the Oceanic Community.

Keywords

Meso Faunal Composition Distinct Community Typical Inhabitant Epipelagic Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvariño A, Hosmer SC, Ford RF (1983a) Antarctic Chaetognatha: United States research program “Eltanin” cruises 8–28, part 1. Antarct Res Ser 34:129–338Google Scholar
  2. Alvariño A, Verfaillie DF, Ford RF (1983b) Antarctic Chaetognatha: United States research program “Eltanin” cruises 10–23, 25, and 27, part 2. Antarct Res Ser 39:69–204Google Scholar
  3. Andres HG (1978) Gammaridea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) der Antarktis-Expedition 1975/76 — Auswertung der Dauerstation südlich von Elephant Island. Meeresforschung 27:88–102Google Scholar
  4. Andres HG (1986) Atylopsis procerus sp. n. und Cheirimedon solidus sp. n. aus der Weddell See sowie Anmerkungen zu Orchomenella pinguides Walker 1903 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridea). Mitt Hamb Zool Mus Inst 83:117–130Google Scholar
  5. Andrews KJH (1966) The distribution and life history of Calanoides acutus (Giesbrecht). Discovery Rep 34:117–162Google Scholar
  6. Angel MV, Fasham MJR (1973) SOND cruise 1965: factor and cluster analysis of the plankton results, a general summary. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 53:185–231Google Scholar
  7. Augener H (1929) Beiträge zur Planktonbevölkerung der Weddell See nach der Deutschen Antarktischen Expedition 1911–1912: 5. Die Polychaeten der Weddell See. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol Hydrogr 22:273–311Google Scholar
  8. Baker AdeC (1954) The circumpolar continuity of antarctic plankton species. Discovery Rep 26:201–218Google Scholar
  9. Baker AdeC, Clarke MR, Harris MJ (1973) The N.I.O. Combination net (RMT 1-8) and further developments of rectangular midwater trawls. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 53:167–184Google Scholar
  10. Biggs DC (1977) Field studies of fishing, feeding and digestion in siphonophores. Mar Behav Physiol 4:261–274Google Scholar
  11. Birstein YA, Chindonova YG (1962) Mysidacea collected by the Soviet Antarctic Expedition on the RV “Ob”. In: Andriyashev AP, Ushakov PV (eds) Biological reports of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1955–1958). Stud Mar Fauna 1:58–68Google Scholar
  12. Birstein YA, Vinogradov ME (1962) Pelagic gammarids collected by the Soviet Antarctic Expedition with RV “Ob” southward from 40°S. In: Andriyashev AP, Ushakov PV (eds) Biological reports of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1955–1958). Stud Mar Fauna 1:33–56Google Scholar
  13. Boden BP, Parker LD (1986) The plankton of the Prince Edward Islands. Polar Biol 5:81–93Google Scholar
  14. Bölter M, Meyer M (1986) Structuring of ecological data sets by methods of correlation and cluster analysis. Ecol Modelling 32:1–13Google Scholar
  15. Bölter M, Meyer M, Probst B (1980) A statistical scheme for structural analysis in marine ecosystems. Ecol Modelling 9:143–151Google Scholar
  16. Bollmann A (1934) Die Chaetognathen der Deutschen Antarktischen Expedition auf der Deutschland 1911–1912. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol Hydrogr 30:251–305Google Scholar
  17. Bowman TE (1985) The correct identity of the pelagic amphipod Primno macropa, with a diagnosis of Primno abyssalis (Hyperiidea: Phrosinidae). Proc Biol Soc Wash 98:121–126Google Scholar
  18. Boysen-Ennen E (1987) On the distribution of meso- and macrozooplankton in the surface water of the Weddell See (in German). Rep Polar Res 35:1–126Google Scholar
  19. Brinton E, Huntley M, Townsend AW (1986) Larvae of Euphausia superba in Scotia Sea and Bransfield Strait in March 1984 — Development and abundance compared with 1981 larvae. Polar Biol 5:221–234Google Scholar
  20. Bröckel K von (1985) Primary production data from the southern Weddell Sea. Polar Biol 4:75–80Google Scholar
  21. Carmack EC, Foster TD (1975) Circulation of oceanographic properties near the Filchner Ice Shelf. Deep-Sea Res 22:77–90Google Scholar
  22. Carmack EC, Foster TD (1977) Water masses and circulation in the Weddell Sea. In: Dunbar MJ (ed) Polar Oceans. Arct Inst North America, pp 151–165Google Scholar
  23. Chen C (1968) Zoogeography of thecosomatous pteropods in the West Antarctic Ocean. Nautilus 81:94–101Google Scholar
  24. Conover RJ, Lalli CM (1972): Feeding and growth in Clione limacina, a pteropod mollusc. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 9:279–302Google Scholar
  25. Cushing DH (1961) Patchiness. ICES Rapp Proc Verb 153:152–163Google Scholar
  26. David PM (1958) The distribution of the Chaetognatha of the Southern Ocean. Discovery Rep 29:200–229Google Scholar
  27. Deevey GB, Brook A (1977) Copepods of the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda: Species composition, and vertical and seasonal distribution between the surface and 2000 m. Bull Mar Sci 27:256–291Google Scholar
  28. Domanski P (1984) The diel migrations and distributions within a mesopelagic community in the North-East Atlantic. 8. A multivariate analysis of community structure. Prog Oceanogr 13:491–511Google Scholar
  29. Drescher HE, Hubold G, Piatkowski U, Voß J (1983) Das biologische Programm der Antarktis-I-Expedition mit FS Polarstern: Stationslisten der Plankton-, Benthos- und Grundschleppnetzfänge und der Liste der Probennahme an Robben und Vögeln. Rep Polar Res 13:1–34Google Scholar
  30. Ehlers E (1913) Die Polychaeten der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901–1903. Dtsch Südpolar Exp 13:397–598Google Scholar
  31. El-Sayed SZ, Taguchi S (1981) The primary production and standing crop of phytoplankton along the ice-edge in the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res 28:1017–1032Google Scholar
  32. Everson I (1984) Zooplankton. In: Laws RM (ed) Antarctic ecology, vol II. Academic Press, London, pp 463–490Google Scholar
  33. Everson I, Bone DG (1986) Effectiveness of RMT 8 system for sampling krill (Euphausia superba) swarms. Polar Biol 6:83–90Google Scholar
  34. Farran GP (1929) Crustacea. Part X. Copepoda. Nat Hist Rep Br Antarct “Terra Nova” Exp 8:203–306Google Scholar
  35. Fevolden SE (1979) Investigation on krill (Euphausiacea) sampled during the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition 1976/77. Sarsia 64:189–198Google Scholar
  36. Fevolden SE (1980) Krill off Bouvetöya and in the southern Weddell Sea with a description of larval stages of Euphausia crystallorophias. Sarsia 65:149–162Google Scholar
  37. Field JG, Clarke KR, Warwick RM (1982) A practical strategy for analysing multispecies distribution patterns. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8:37–52Google Scholar
  38. Foxton P (1966) The distribution and life history of Salpa thompsoni Foxton with observations on a related species Salpa gerlachei. Discovery Rep 34:1–116Google Scholar
  39. Frost B, Fleminger A (1968) A revision of the genus Clausocalanus (Copepoda: Calanoida) with remarks on distribution patterns in diagnostic characters. Bull Scripps Inst Oceanogr 12:1–235Google Scholar
  40. Gill AE (1973) Circulation and bottom water production in the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res 20:111–140Google Scholar
  41. Gilmer RW (1974) Some aspects of feeding in thecosomatous pteropod molluscs. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 15:127–144Google Scholar
  42. Hagen W (1985) On distribution and population structure of Antarctic Chaetognatha. Meeresforschung 30:280–291Google Scholar
  43. Hamner WM, Hamner PP, Strand SW, Gilmer RW (1983) Behavior of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba: chemoreception, feeding, schooling, and molting. Science 220:433–435Google Scholar
  44. Harbison GR, Biggs DC, Madin LP (1977) Associations of Amphipoda Hyperiidea with gelatinous zooplankton. II. Associations with cnidaria, ctenophora and radiolaria. Deep-Sea Res 24:465–488Google Scholar
  45. Hardy AC, Gunther ER (1936) The plankton of the South Georgia whaling grounds and adjacent waters 1926–1927. Discovery Rep 11:1–456Google Scholar
  46. Hartman O (1964) Polychaeta Errantia of Antarctica. Antarct Res Ser 3:1–131Google Scholar
  47. Haury LR, McGowan JA, Wiebe PH (1978) Patterns and processes in the time-space scale of plankton distributions. In: Steele JH (ed) Spatial pattern in plankton communities. Plenum Press, New York, pp 277–327Google Scholar
  48. Hempel G (1983) Die Expedition Antarktis I mit FS Polarstern 1982/83. Rep Polar Res 14:1–141Google Scholar
  49. Hempel G (1987) The krill-dominated pelagic system of the Southern Ocean. Environ Int 13:33–36Google Scholar
  50. Hempel I, Hempel G (1982) Distribution of euphausiid larvae in the southern Weddell Sea. Meeresforschung 29:253–266Google Scholar
  51. Hempel I, Hubold G, Kaczmaruk B, Keller R, Weigmann-Haass R (1983) Distribution of some groups of zooplankton in the inner Weddell Sea in summer 1979/80. Rep Polar Res 9:1–35Google Scholar
  52. Heron GA, Bowman TE (1971) Postnaupliar developmental stages of the copepod crustaceans Clausocalanus laticeps, Clausocalanus brevipes, and Clausocalanus citer (Calanoida: Pseudocalanidae). Antarct Res Ser 17:141–165Google Scholar
  53. Hopkins TL (1985a) The zooplankton community of Croker Passage, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biol 4:161–170Google Scholar
  54. Hopkins TL (1985b) Food web of an antarctic midwater ecosystem. Mar Biol 89:197–212Google Scholar
  55. Hopkins TL (1987) Midwater food web in McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Mar Biol 96:93–106Google Scholar
  56. Hubold G (1984) Spatial distribution of Pleuragramma antarcticum (Pisces: Nototheniidae) near the Filchner and Larsen Ice Shelves (Weddell Sea/Antarctica). Polar Biol 3:231–236Google Scholar
  57. Hubold G (1985) On the early life history of the high Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum. In: Siegfried WR, Condy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Proc 4th SCAR Symp Antarct Biol. Springer, Berlin, pp 445–451Google Scholar
  58. Hubold G, Hempel I (1987) Seasonal variability of zooplankton in the Southern Weddell Sea. Meeresforschung 31:185–192Google Scholar
  59. Hubold G, Hempel I, Meyer M (1988) Zooplankton communities in the southern Weddell Sea. Polar Biol 8:225–233Google Scholar
  60. Jazdzewski K, Kittel W, Lotocki K (1982) Zooplankton studies in the southern Drake Passage and in the Bransfield Strait during the austral summer (BIOMASS-FIBEX), February–March 1981. Pol Polar Res 3:203–242Google Scholar
  61. Kaezmaruk BZ (1983) Occurrence and distribution of the antarctic copepods along the ice shelves in the Weddell Sea in summer 1979/80. Meeresforschung 30:25–41Google Scholar
  62. Kane JE (1966) The distribution of Parathemisto gaudichaudii (Guer) with observations on its life history in the 0° to 20°E sector of the Souther Ocean. Discovery Rep 34:163–198Google Scholar
  63. Keller R (1983) Contributions to early life history of Pleuragramma antarcticum. Meeresforschung 30:10–24Google Scholar
  64. Kellermann A (1987) Food and feeding ecology of postlarval and juvenile Pleuragramma antarcticum (Pisces; Notothenioidei) in the seasonal pack ice zone off Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biol 7:307–315Google Scholar
  65. Kils U (1983) Swimming and feeding of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba — some outstanding energetics and dynamics, some unique morphological details. Rep Polar Res (Spec Issue) 4:130–155Google Scholar
  66. Kirkwood JH (1983) A guide to the decapoda of the Southern Ocean. Anare Res Notes 11:1–47Google Scholar
  67. Kittel W (1980) Population studies on Euphausia superba Dana 1852 (Euphausiacea, Crustacea) in waters of the Admirality Bay during Antarctic summer of 1978. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 27:267–272Google Scholar
  68. Kittel W, Ligowski R (1980) Algae found in the food of Euphausia crystallorophias (Crustacea). Pol Polar Res 1:129–137Google Scholar
  69. Kittel W, Presler P (1980) Morphology of the postlarval development stages of Euphausia crystallorophias Holt & Tattersall 1906 (Euphausiacea, Crustacea). Pol Arch Hydrobiol 27:259–265Google Scholar
  70. Kramp PL (1959) The hydromedusae of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters. Dana Rep 46:1–128Google Scholar
  71. Kramp PL (1968) The hydromedusae of the Pacific and Indian Ocean, Section II and III. Dana Rep 72:1–200Google Scholar
  72. Lance GN, Williams WT (1967) A general theory of classificatory sorting strategies. 1. Hierarchical systems. Comput J 9:373–379Google Scholar
  73. Lebour MV (1935) The echinospira larvae (Mollusca) of Plymouth. Proc Zool Soc London 35:163–174Google Scholar
  74. Lohmann H (1928) Beiträge zur Planktonbevölkerung der Weddell See: II. Die Appendicularien-Bevölkerung der Weddell See. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol Hydrogr 20:13–34Google Scholar
  75. Longhurst AR (1976) Vertical migration. In: Cushing DH, Walsh JJ (eds) The ecology of the seas. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 116–137Google Scholar
  76. Mackas DL, Anderson EP (1986) Small scale zooplankton community variability in a northern British Columbia fjord system. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci 22:115–135Google Scholar
  77. Mackintosh NA (1934) Distribution of the macroplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic. Discovery Rep 9:65–160Google Scholar
  78. Mackintosh NA (1970) Whales and krill in the twentieth century. In: Holdgate MW (ed) Antarctic ecology, vol I. Academic Press, London, pp 195–212Google Scholar
  79. Makarov RR (1979) Larval distribution and reproductive ecology of Thysanoessa macrura (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the Scotia Sea. Mar Biol 52:377–386Google Scholar
  80. Marr JWS (1962) The natural history and geography of the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Discovery Rep 32:33–464Google Scholar
  81. Marshall SM, Orr AP (1956) On the feeding biology of Calanus finmarchicus: IX. Feeding and digestion in the young stages. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 35:587–603Google Scholar
  82. McGowan JA (1974) The nature of oceanic ecosystems. In: Miller C (ed) The biology of the oceanic Pacific. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, pp 9–22Google Scholar
  83. McGowan JA, Fraundorf VJ (1966) The relationship between size of net used and estimates of zooplankton diversity. Limnol Oceanogr 11:456–459Google Scholar
  84. Miller DGM (1985) Marine macroplankton of two subantarctic islands. In: Siegfried WR, Condy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Proc 4th SCAR Symp Antarct Biol. Springer, Berlin, pp 355–361Google Scholar
  85. Montú MA, Oliveira IR de (1986) Zooplanktonic associations, trophic relations and standing stock of krill and other groups of the community near Elephant Island (February–March 1984–1985). Neritica 1:111–130Google Scholar
  86. Morton JE (1954) The biology of Limacina retroversa. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 33:297–312Google Scholar
  87. Moser F (1925) Die Siphonophoren der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901–1903. Dtsch Südpolar Exp 17:1–541Google Scholar
  88. Mujica AR, Torres AG (1983) Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Antarctic zooplankton. INACH Ser Sci 28:165–174Google Scholar
  89. Nakamura M, Kadota S, Fukuchi M (1982) Epipelagic copepods of Calanoida in the Indian sector of the Antarctic ocean. In: Hoshiai T, Naito Y (eds) Proc 5th Symp Antarct Biol. Mem Natl Inst Polar Res (Spec Issue) 23:28–31Google Scholar
  90. Nast F (1986) Changes in krill abundance and in other zooplankton relative to the Weddell-Scotia Confluence around Elephant Island in November 1983, November 1984 and March 1985. Arch Fischereiwiss 37:73–94Google Scholar
  91. Ommanney FD (1936) Rhincalanus gigas (Brady), a copepod of the southern macroplankton. Discovery Rep 13:277–384Google Scholar
  92. Orensanz JM, Ramírez FC, Dinofrio EO (1974) Resultados planctológicòs de la compaña “Oceantar I”: II. Poliquetos. Contrib Inst Antarct Arg 184:1–41Google Scholar
  93. O'Sullivan D (1982) A guide to the polychaetes of the Southern Ocean and adjacent waters. ANARE Res Notes 3:1–62Google Scholar
  94. Ottestad P (1932) On the biology of some southern copepods. Hvalrad Skr 5:1–61Google Scholar
  95. Ottestad P (1936) On antarctic copepods from the “Norvegia” Expedition 1930–31. Sci Res “Norvegia” Exped 1927–1928 et sqq 15:5–44Google Scholar
  96. Park T (1978) Calanoid copepods from antarctic and subantarctic waters (Euchaetidae and Aetideidae). Antarct Res Ser 27:91–290Google Scholar
  97. Park T (1982) Calanoid copepods of the genus Scaphocalanus from antarctic and subantarctic waters. Antarct Res Ser 34:75–127Google Scholar
  98. Petipa TS, Pavlova EV, Mironov GN (1970) The food web structure and transport of energy by trophic levels in the planktonic community. In: Steele JH (ed) Marine food chains. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 142–167Google Scholar
  99. Piatkowski U (1985a) Distribution, abundance and diurnal migration of macrozooplankton in antarctic surface waters. Meeresforschung 30:264–279Google Scholar
  100. Piatkowski U (1985b) Maps of the geographical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Rep Polar Res 22:1–55Google Scholar
  101. Piatkowski U (1987) Zoogeographical investigations and community analyses on antarctic macroplankton (in German). Rep Polar Res 34:1–150Google Scholar
  102. Piatkowski U (in press) Macrozooplankton communities from Weddell Sea surface waters, Antarctica. Proc 2nd Int Symp Antarct Biol, Rio de Janeiro, Ann Acad Bras CiencGoogle Scholar
  103. Picken GB (1980) Reproductive adaptations of antarctic benthic invertebrates. Biol J Linnean Soc 14:67–75Google Scholar
  104. Plötz J (1986) Summer diet of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) in the eastern and southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol 6:97–102Google Scholar
  105. Rakusa-Suszczewski S (1982) The biology and metabolism of Orchomene plebs (Hurley 1965) (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol 1:47–54Google Scholar
  106. Rakusa-Suszczewski S (1983) The relationship between the distribution of plankton biomass and plankton communities in the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait (BIOMASS-FIBEX, February–March 1981) In: Nemoto T, Makuda T (eds) Proc BIOMASS Colloq 1982. Mem Natl Inst Polar Res (Spec Issue) 27:77–83Google Scholar
  107. Rakusa-Suszczewski S, Stepnik R (1980) Three species of krill from Admirality Bay (King George, South Shetlands) in summer 1978/79. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 27:273–284Google Scholar
  108. Rodhouse PG, Clarke MR (1986) Distribution of the early life phase of the antarctic squid Galiteuthis glacialis in relation to the hydrology of the Southern Ocean in the sector 15° to 30°E. Mar Biol 91:353–357Google Scholar
  109. Roe HSJ, Shale DM (1979) A new multiple Rectangular Midwater Trawl (RMT 1+8 M) and some modifications to the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences' RMT 1+8. Mar Biol 50:283–288Google Scholar
  110. Roe HSJ, Baker AdeC, Carson RM, Wild R, Shale DM (1980) Behaviour of the Institute of Oceanographic Science's Rectangular Midwater Trawls: Theoretical aspects and experimental observations. Mar Biol 56:247–259Google Scholar
  111. Rosendorn I (1927) Die Gattung Oithona. Dtsch Tiefsee Exp 1898–1899 23:1–55Google Scholar
  112. Ruud JT (1932) On the biology of the southern euphausiidae. Hvalrad Skr 2:1–105Google Scholar
  113. Sakshaug E, Holm-Hansen O (1984) Factors governing pelagic production in polar oceans. In: Holm-Hansen O, Bolis L, Gilles R (eds) Marine phytoplankton and productivity, vol 8. Lecture notes on coastal and estuarine studies, 1–18Google Scholar
  114. Sameoto DD (1984) Environmental factors influencing diurnal distribution of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. J Plankton Res 6:767–792Google Scholar
  115. Sameoto DD (1986) Influence of the biological and physical environment on the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton and micronekton in the eastern tropical Pazific. Mar Biol 93:263–279Google Scholar
  116. Schnack SB (1983) Feeding of two Antarctic copepod species (Calanus propinquus and Metridia gerlachei) on a mixture of centric diatoms. Polar Biol 2:63–69Google Scholar
  117. Schnack SB, Marschall S, Mizdalski E (1985) On the distribution of copepods and larvae of Euphausia superba in Antarctic waters during February 1982. Meeresforschung 30:251–263Google Scholar
  118. Shulenberger E, Wormuth JH, Loeb VJ (1984) A large swarm of Euphausia superba: overview of patch structure and composition. J Crust Biol 4:75–95Google Scholar
  119. Siegel V (1982) Investigations on krill (Euphausia superba) in the southern Weddell Sea. Meeresforschung 29:244–252Google Scholar
  120. Slattery PN, Oliver JS (1986) Scavenging and other feeding habits of lysianassid amphipods (Orchomene spp.) from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Polar Biol 6:171–177Google Scholar
  121. Spoel S van der (1967) Euthecosomata, a group with remarkable developmental stages. Nat Diss, Amsterdam. Noorduyn en Zoon, Gorinchem, pp 1–375Google Scholar
  122. Steuer A (1937) Die Verbreitung der Copepoden-Gattungen Sapphirinano, Copilia, Miracia; Pleuromamma, Rhincalanus und Cephalophanes im Südatlantischen Ozean. Wiss Ergeb Dtsch Atlant Exp Meteor 12:101–163Google Scholar
  123. Støp-Bowitz C (1977) Polychètes pélagique des expéditions du “Willem Barendsz” et du “Snellius”. Zool Med 51:1–24Google Scholar
  124. Strübing K (1982) Die Zugänglichkeit von Forschungsstationen am Rande der Weddell See in Abhängigkeit von den Meereisverhältnissen. Proc INTERMARITEC 1982, Hamburg 29–30 September 1982, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  125. Tebble N (1960) The distribution of pelagic polychaetes in the South Atlantic Ocean. Discovery Rep 30:161–300Google Scholar
  126. Tebble N (1968) Pelagic polychaetes of the Soviet Antarctic Expeditions. In: Andriyashev AP, Ushakov PV (eds) Biological reports of the Soviet Antarctic Expeditions 1955–1958. Stud Mar Fauna 4:23–32Google Scholar
  127. Thiel ME (1931) Beiträge zur Planktonbevölkerung der Weddell See. VI. Die Hydromedusen der Weddell See. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol Hydrogr 25:305–332Google Scholar
  128. Thurston MH (1974) Crustacea Amphipoda from Graham Land and the Scotia Arc, collected by operation Tabarin and the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, 1944–59. Sci Rep Br Antarct Surv 85:1–89Google Scholar
  129. Timonin AG (1973) Structure of pelagic communities: Trophic structure of zooplankton in the northern part of the Indian Ocean. Oceanology 13:85–93Google Scholar
  130. Totton AK, Bargmann HE (1965) A synopsis of the Siphonophora. Br Mus Nat Hist, London, pp 1–230Google Scholar
  131. Tranter DJ (1982) Interlinking of physical and biological processes in the Antarctic Ocean. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 20:11–36Google Scholar
  132. Vervoort W (1951) Plankton copepods from the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic. K Ned Akad Wet, Versl Gewone Vergad Afd Natuurkd Dl 48:1–156Google Scholar
  133. Vervoort W (1965) Notes on the biogeography and ecology of freeliving marine copepods. In: Mieghem J van, Oye P van, Schell J (eds) Biogeography and ecology in Antarctica. W Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp 381–400Google Scholar
  134. Vladimirskaya YV (1978) Age composition of winter populations of abundant species in the southern part of the Scotia Sea. Oceanology 18:202–204Google Scholar
  135. Voronina NM (1970) Seasonal cycles of some common Antarctic copepod species. In: Holdgate NM (ed) Antarctic ecology, vol I. Academic Press, London, pp 162–172Google Scholar
  136. Voronina NM (1972a) The spatial structure of interzonal copepod population in the Southern Ocean. Mar Biol 15:336–343Google Scholar
  137. Voronina NM (1972b) Vertical structure of a pelagic community in the Antarctic. Oceanology 12:415–420Google Scholar
  138. Voss NA (1980) A generic revision of the chranchiidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Bull Mar Sci 30:365–412Google Scholar
  139. Ward P (1985) On the biology of Antarctomysis ohlini (Crustacea: Mysidacea) at South Georgia. Br Antarct Surv Bull 67:13–23Google Scholar
  140. Weigmann-Haass R (1983) Zur Taxonomie und Verbreitung der Gattung Cyllopus Dana 1853 (Amphipoda: Hyperiidea) im antarktischen Teil des Atlantik. Meteor Forsch-Ergeb (Reihe D) 36:1–11Google Scholar
  141. Wickstead JH (1962) Food and feeding in pelagic copepods. Proc Zool Soc London 139:545–555Google Scholar
  142. Witek Z, Kittel I, Czykieta H, Zmijewska I, Presler E (1985) Macrozooplankton in the southern Drake Passage and in the Bransfield Strait during BIOMASS-SIBEX (December 1983–Januar 1984). Pol Polar Res 6:95–115Google Scholar
  143. Wolfenden RN (1911) Die marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901–1903. II. Die pelagischen Copepoden der Westwinddrift und des südlichen Eismeeres. Dtsch Südpolar Exp 12:181–380Google Scholar
  144. Yaldwyn JC (1965) Antarctic and subantarctic decapod crustacea. In: Mieghem J van, Oye P van, Schell J (eds) Biogeography and ecology in Antarctica. W Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp 324–332Google Scholar
  145. Zmijewska MI (1983) Copepoda (Calanoida) from Prudz Bay (Antarctica, Indian Ocean Sector). Pol Polar Res 4:33–47Google Scholar
  146. Zmijewska MI (1985) Copepoda in the southern part of Drake Passage and in Bransfield Strait during early summer 1983–84 (BIOMASS-SIBEX, December–January). Pol Polar Res 6:79–93Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabeth Boysen-Ennen
    • 1
  • Uwe Piatkowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und MeeresforschungBremerhavenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations