36 children aged 0.13 to 13.05 years with severe manifestations of atopy were studied for circulating parietal cell antibodies (PCA), fasting serum gastrin and ferritin. Gastric acid secretion was measured using a pentagastrin test. In addition, 21 gastric and 28 jejunal biopsies were taken for evaluation of the mucosal morphology. In infants the gastric secretion studies were repeated after a three month hypoallergic diet.
Maximal acid output (MAO) was significantly (P<0.01) diminished in atopic infants under one year of age. In this group one girl with transient PCA was achlorhydric and seven others were hypochlorhydric, as compared with controls of the same age. Acid secretion returned to normal in most children while on the elimination diet, and only two remained hypochlorhydric thereafter. The picture was more complex in the older children as some continued to exhibit hyposecretion in their second year of life, while others were even hyperchlorhydric. Epithelial degeneration, found in 13 out of the 21 samples, was the most striking feature in the gastric biopsies. Jejunal biopsies revealed increased eosinophilic infiltration of the lamina propria in 10 out of 28 diagnostic samples; two had slight and another two partial villous atrophy.
It is concluded that in atopic children gastric hyposecretion and epithelial degeneration may promote the passage of unhandled food allergens through the jejunal mucosa, predisposing to more severe changes, as seen in cow's milk intolerance. Slight villous atrophy with eosinophilic infiltration and oedema of the lamina propria may cause mild absorption defects, growth and nutritional deficiencies in these children. Atopy should be considered as a possible aetiological factor in prolonged gastrointestinal disorders in infants.
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Kokkonen, J., Similä, S. & Herva, R. Gastrointestinal findings in atopic children. Eur J Pediatr 134, 249–254 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00441481
- Gastric juice
- Gastric mucosa
- Food hypersensitivity
- Jejunal mucosa